Requirements Management  (REQM)   Category: Engineering

Notes:

        The contents of this web page were extracted from the following document: Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM), Version 1.1, Continuous Representation, CMU/SEI-2002-TR-011, March 2002 (CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/SS). Copyright 2002 by Carnegie Mellon University. NO WARRANTY.

        Ignore the identifiers in square brackets that appear at the end of paragraphs.

        The formatting may not be the same as in the printed CMMI document. The web page is best viewed in Internet Explorer.

        In the CMMI, a subset is known as a "Process Area (PA)" and a requirement is known as a "Practice". The specific practices are referred to as SPs and the generic practices are referred to as GPs.

        This web page contains the text for SPs and GPs as it appears in Chapter 7 of the CMMI document, in the section corresponding to the process area named in the heading of this page. This web page does not include the detailed description of the GPs that appears in a separate chapter of the CMMI document; the detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. (Note: Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window.)

Purpose    The purpose of Requirements Management is to manage the requirements of the project's products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the project's plans and work products. [PA146]

Introductory Notes   Requirements management processes manage all requirements received or generated by the project, including both technical and nontechnical requirements as well as those requirements levied on the project by the organization. In particular, if the Requirements Development process area is implemented, its processes will generate product and product-component requirements that will also be managed by the requirements management processes. When the Requirements Management, Requirements Development, and Technical Solution process areas are all implemented, their associated processes may be closely tied and be performed concurrently. [PA146.N101]

The project takes appropriate steps to ensure that the agreed-upon set of requirements is managed to support the planning and execution needs of the project. When a project receives requirements from an approved requirements provider, the requirements are reviewed with the requirements provider to resolve issues and prevent misunderstanding before the requirements are incorporated into the project’s plans. Once the requirements provider and the requirements receiver reach an agreement, commitment to the requirements is obtained from the project participants. The project manages changes to the requirements as they evolve and identifies any inconsistencies that occur among the plans, work products, and requirements. [PA146.N102]

Part of the management of requirements is to document requirements changes and rationale and maintain bidirectional traceability between source requirements and all product and product-component requirements. [PA146.N103]

Refer to the Requirements Development process area for more information regarding transforming stakeholder needs into product requirements and deciding how to allocate or distribute requirements among the product components. [PA146.R101]

Refer to the Technical Solution process area for more information about transforming requirements into technical solutions. [PA146.R102]

Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about how project plans reflect requirements and need to be revised as requirements change. [PA146.R103]

Refer to the Configuration Management process area for more information about baselines and controlling changes to configuration documentation for requirements. [PA146.R104]

Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about tracking and controlling the activities and work products that are based on the requirements and taking appropriate corrective action. [PA146.R105]

Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about identifying and handling risks associated with requirements. [PA146.R106]

Specific Goals

SG 1 Manage Requirements [PA146.IG101]

Requirements are managed and inconsistencies with project plans and work products are identified.

Generic Goals

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals [CL102.GL101]

The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process [CL103.GL101]

The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process [CL104.GL101]

The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process [CL105.GL101]

The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process [CL106.GL101]

The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

Practice-to-Goal Relationship Table

SG 1 Manage Requirements [PA146.IG101]

SP 1.1-1 Obtain an Understanding of Requirements

SP 1.2-2 Obtain Commitment to Requirements

SP 1.3-1 Manage Requirements Changes

SP 1.4-2 Maintain Bidirectional Traceability of Requirements

SP 1.5-1 Identify Inconsistencies between Project Work and Requirements

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals [CL102.GL101]

GP 1.1 Perform Base Practices

GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process [CL103.GL101]

GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy

GP 2.2 Plan the Process

GP 2.3 Provide Resources

GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility

GP 2.5 Train People

GP 2.6 Manage Configurations

GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process

GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence

GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management

GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process [CL104.GL101]

GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process

GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information

GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process [CL105.GL101]

GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance

GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process [CL106.GL101]

GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Manage Requirements

Requirements are managed and inconsistencies with project plans and work products are identified. [PA146.IG101]

The project maintains a current and approved set of requirements over the life of the project by doing the following: [PA146.IG101.N101]

           Managing all changes to the requirements

           Maintaining the relationships between the requirements, the project plans, and the work products

           Identifying inconsistencies between the requirements, the project plans, and the work products

           Taking corrective action

Refer to the Technical Solution process area for more information about determining the feasibility of the requirements. [PA146.IG101.N101.R101]

Refer to the Requirements Development process area for more information about ensuring that the requirements reflect the needs and expectations of the customer. [PA146.IG101.N101.R102]

Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about taking corrective action. [PA146.IG101.N101.R103]

For Software Engineering

The requirements may be a subset of the overall product requirements, or they may constitute the entire product requirements. [PA146.IG101.AMP101]

For Systems Engineering

Each level of product-component design (e.g., segment, subsystem) receives the requirements from the higher level. [PA146.IG101.AMP102]

SP 1.1-1 Obtain an Understanding of Requirements

Develop an understanding with the requirements providers on the meaning of the requirements. [PA146.IG101.SP101]

As the project matures and requirements are derived, all activities or disciplines will receive requirements. To avoid requirements creep, criteria are established to designate appropriate channels, or official sources, from which to receive requirements. The receiving activities conduct analyses of the requirements with the requirements provider to ensure that a compatible, shared understanding is reached on the meaning of the requirements. The result of this analysis and dialog is an agreed-to set of requirements. [PA146.IG101.SP101.N101]

Typical Work Products

1. Lists of criteria for distinguishing appropriate requirements providers [PA146.IG101.SP101.W101]

2. Criteria for evaluation and acceptance of requirements [PA146.IG101.SP101.W102]

3. Results of analyses against criteria [PA146.IG101.SP101.W103]

4. An agreed-to set of requirements [PA146.IG101.SP101.W104]

Subpractices

1. Establish criteria for distinguishing appropriate requirements providers. [PA146.IG101.SP101.SubP101]

2. Establish objective criteria for the acceptance of requirements. [PA146.IG101.SP101.SubP102]

Lack of acceptance criteria often results in inadequate verification, costly rework, or customer rejection. [PA146.IG101.SP101.SubP102.N102]

Examples of acceptance criteria include the following: [PA146.IG101.SP101.SubP102.N101]

       Clearly and properly stated

       Complete

       Consistent with each other

       Uniquely identified

       Appropriate to implement

       Verifiable (testable)

       Traceable

 

3. Analyze requirements to ensure that the established criteria are met. [PA146.IG101.SP101.SubP103]

4. Reach an understanding of the requirements with the requirements provider so the project participants can commit to them. [PA146.IG101.SP101.SubP104]

SP 1.2-2 Obtain Commitment to Requirements

Obtain commitment to the requirements from the project participants. [PA146.IG101.SP102]

Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about monitoring the commitments made. [PA146.IG101.SP102.R101]

For Integrated Product and Process Development

When integrated teams are formed, the project participants are the integrated teams and their members. Commitment to the requirement for interacting with other integrated teams is as important for each integrated team as its commitments to product and other project requirements. [PA146.IG101.SP102.AMP101]

Whereas the previous specific practice dealt with reaching an understanding with the requirements providers, this specific practice deals with agreements and commitments among those who have to carry out the activities necessary to implement the requirements. Requirements evolve throughout the project, especially as described by the specific practices of the Requirements Development process area and the Technical Solution process area. As the requirements evolve, this specific practice ensures that project participants commit to the current, approved requirements and the resulting changes in project plans, activities, and work products. [PA146.IG101.SP102.N101]

Typical Work Products

1. Requirements impact assessments [PA146.IG101.SP102.W101]

2. Documented commitments to requirements and requirements changes [PA146.IG101.SP102.W102]

Subpractices

1. Assess the impact of requirements on existing commitments. [PA146.IG101.SP102.SubP101]

The impact on the project participants should be evaluated when the requirements change or at the start of a new requirement. [PA146.IG101.SP102.SubP101.N101]

2. Negotiate and record commitments. [PA146.IG101.SP102.SubP102]

Changes to existing commitments should be negotiated before project participants commit to the requirement or requirement change. [PA146.IG101.SP102.SubP102.N101]

SP 1.3-1 Manage Requirements Changes

Manage changes to the requirements as they evolve during the project. [PA146.IG101.SP103]

Refer to the Configuration Management process area for more information about maintaining and controlling the requirements baseline and on making the requirements and change data available to the project. [PA146.IG101.SP103.R101]

During the project, requirements change for a variety of reasons. As needs change and as work proceeds, additional requirements are derived and changes may have to be made to the existing requirements. It is essential to manage these additions and changes efficiently and effectively. To effectively analyze the impact of the changes, it is necessary that the source of each requirement is known and the rationale for any change is documented. The project manager may, however, want to track appropriate measures of requirements volatility to judge whether new or revised controls are necessary. [PA146.IG101.SP103.N101]

Typical Work Products

1. Requirements status [PA146.IG101.SP103.W101]

2. Requirements database [PA146.IG101.SP103.W102]

3. Requirements decision database [PA146.IG101.SP103.W103]

Subpractices

1. Capture all requirements and requirements changes that are given to or generated by the project. [PA146.IG101.SP103.SubP101]

2. Maintain the requirements change history with the rationale for the changes. [PA146.IG101.SP103.SubP102]

Maintaining the change history helps track requirements volatility. [PA146.IG101.SP103.SubP102.N101]

3. Evaluate the impact of requirement changes from the standpoint of relevant stakeholders. [PA146.IG101.SP103.SubP103]

4. Make the requirements and change data available to the project. [PA146.IG101.SP103.SubP104]

SP 1.4-2 Maintain Bidirectional Traceability of Requirements

Maintain bidirectional traceability among the requirements and the project plans and work products. [PA146.IG101.SP104]

The intent of this specific practice is to maintain the bidirectional traceability of requirements for each level of product decomposition. When the requirements are managed well, traceability can be established from the source requirement to its lower level requirements and from the lower level requirements back to their source. Such bidirectional traceability helps determine that all source requirements have been completely addressed and that all lower level requirements can be traced to a valid source. Requirements traceability can also cover the relationships to other entities such as intermediate and final work products, changes in design documentation, test plans, and work tasks. The traceability should cover both the horizontal and vertical relationships, such as across interfaces. Traceability is particularly needed in conducting the impact assessment of requirements changes on the project plans, activities, and work products. [PA146.IG101.SP104.N101]

Typical Work Products

1. Requirements traceability matrix [PA146.IG101.SP104.W101]

2. Requirements tracking system [PA146.IG101.SP104.W102]

Subpractices

1. Maintain requirements traceability to ensure that the source of lower level (derived) requirements is documented. [PA146.IG101.SP104.SubP101]

2. Maintain requirements traceability from a requirement to its derived requirements as well as to its allocation of functions, objects, people, processes, and work products. [PA146.IG101.SP104.SubP102]

3. Maintain horizontal traceability from function to function and across interfaces. [PA146.IG101.SP104.SubP103]

4. Generate the requirements traceability matrix. [PA146.IG101.SP104.SubP104]

SP 1.5-1 Identify Inconsistencies between Project Work and Requirements

Identify inconsistencies between the project plans and work products and the requirements. [PA146.IG101.SP105]

Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about monitoring and controlling the project plans and work products for consistency with requirements and taking corrective actions when necessary. [PA146.IG101.SP105.R101]

This specific practice finds the inconsistencies between the requirements and the project plans and work products and initiates the corrective action to fix them. [PA146.IG101.SP105.N101]

Typical Work Products

1. Documentation of inconsistencies including sources, conditions, and rationale [PA146.IG101.SP105.W101]

2. Corrective actions [PA146.IG101.SP105.W102]

Subpractices

1. Review the project's plans, activities, and work products for consistency with the requirements and the changes made to them. [PA146.IG101.SP105.SubP101]

2. Identify the source of the inconsistency and the rationale. [PA146.IG101.SP105.SubP102]

3. Identify changes that need to be made to the plans and work products resulting from changes to the requirements baseline. [PA146.IG101.SP105.SubP103]

4. Initiate corrective actions. [PA146.IG101.SP105.SubP104]

Generic Practices by Goal

(Note: The detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window. However, the GP elaborations pertinent to the process area of this web page are available below.)

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals

The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GP 1.1 Perform Base Practices

Perform the base practices of the requirements management process to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area. [GP102]

GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process

The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy

Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the requirements management process. [GP103]

Elaboration:

This policy establishes organizational expectations for managing requirements and identifying inconsistencies between the requirements and the project plans and work products. [PA146.EL101]

GP 2.2 Plan the Process

Establish and maintain the plan for performing the requirements management process. [GP104]

Elaboration:

Typically, this plan for performing the requirements management process is a part of the project plan as described in the Project Planning process area. [PA146.EL102]

GP 2.3 Provide Resources

Provide adequate resources for performing the requirements management process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process. [GP105]

Elaboration:

Examples of resources provided include the following tools: [PA146.EL113]

           Requirements tracking tools

           Traceability tools

 

GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility

Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the requirements management process. [GP106]

GP 2.5 Train People

Train the people performing or supporting the requirements management process as needed. [GP107]

Elaboration:

Examples of training topics include the following: [PA146.EL105]

           Application domain

           Requirements definition, analysis, review, and management

           Requirements management tools

           Configuration management

           Negotiation and conflict resolution

 

GP 2.6 Manage Configurations

Place designated work products of the requirements management process under appropriate levels of configuration management. [GP109]

Elaboration:

Examples of work products placed under configuration management include the following: [PA146.EL108]

           Requirements

           Requirements traceability matrix

 

GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the requirements management process as planned. [GP124]

Elaboration:

Select relevant stakeholders from customers, end users, developers, producers, testers, suppliers, marketers, maintainers, disposal personnel, and others who may be affected by, or may affect, the product as well as the process. [PA146.EL115]

Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include: [PA146.EL116]

           Resolving issues on the understanding of the requirements

           Assessing the impact of requirements changes

           Communicating the bidirectional traceability

           Identifying inconsistencies among project plans, work products, and requirements

 

GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process

Monitor and control the requirements management process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action. [GP110]

Elaboration:

Examples of measures used in monitoring and controlling include the following: [PA146.EL111]

           Requirements volatility (percentage of requirements changed)

 

GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence

Objectively evaluate adherence of the requirements management process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance. [GP113]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities reviewed include the following: [PA146.EL112]

           Managing requirements

           Identifying inconsistencies among project plans, work products, and requirements

 

Examples of work products reviewed include the following: [PA146.EL114]

           Requirements

           Requirements traceability matrix

 

GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management

Review the activities, status, and results of the requirements management process with higher level management and resolve issues. [GP112]

Elaboration:

Proposed changes to commitments to be made external to the organization are reviewed with higher level management to ensure that all commitments can be accomplished. [PA146.EL117]

GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process

The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process

Establish and maintain the description of a defined requirements management process. [GP114]

GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information

Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the requirements management process to support the future use and improvement of the organization’s processes and process assets. [GP117]

GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process

The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for the requirements management process that address quality and process performance based on customer needs and business objectives. [GP118]

GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance

Stabilize the performance of one or more subprocesses to determine the ability of the requirements management process to achieve the established quantitative quality and process-performance objectives. [GP119]

GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process

The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

Ensure continuous improvement of the requirements management process in fulfilling the relevant business objectives of the organization. [GP125]

GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems

Identify and correct the root causes of defects and other problems in the requirements management process. [GP121]