Organizational Training (OT)  Category: Process Management

Notes:

        The contents of this web page were extracted from the following document: Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM), Version 1.1, Continuous Representation, CMU/SEI-2002-TR-011, March 2002 (CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/SS). Copyright 2002 by Carnegie Mellon University. NO WARRANTY.

        Ignore the identifiers in square brackets that appear at the end of paragraphs.

        The formatting may not be the same as in the printed CMMI document. The web page is best viewed in Internet Explorer.

        In the CMMI, a subset is known as a "Process Area (PA)" and a requirement is known as a "Practice". The specific practices are referred to as SPs and the generic practices are referred to as GPs.

        This web page contains the text for SPs and GPs as it appears in Chapter 7 of the CMMI document, in the section corresponding to the process area named in the heading of this page. This web page does not include the detailed description of the GPs that appears in a separate chapter of the CMMI document; the detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. (Note: Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window.)

Purpose  The purpose of Organizational Training is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently.  [PA158]

Introductory Notes  Organizational Training includes training to support the organization’s strategic business objectives and to meet the tactical training needs that are common across projects and support groups. Specific training needs identified by individual projects and support groups are handled at the project and support group level and are outside the scope of Organizational Training. Project and support groups are responsible for identifying and addressing their specific training needs.  [PA158.N101]

Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about the specific training needs identified by projects.  [PA158.N101.R101]

An organizational training program involves the following:  [PA158.N102]

           Identifying the training needed by the organization

           Obtaining and providing training to address those needs

           Establishing and maintaining training capability

           Establishing and maintaining training records

           Assessing training effectiveness

Effective training requires assessment of needs, planning, instructional design, and appropriate training media (e.g., workbooks, computer software), as well as a repository of training process data. As an organizational process, the main components of training include a managed training-development program, documented plans, personnel with appropriate mastery of specific disciplines and other areas of knowledge, and mechanisms for measuring the effectiveness of the training program.  [PA158.N103]

The identification of process training needs is primarily based on the skills that are required to perform the organization's set of standard processes.  [PA158.N104]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about the organization’s set of standard processes.  [PA158.N104.R101]

Certain skills may be effectively and efficiently imparted through vehicles other than in-class training experiences (e.g., informal mentoring). Other skills require more formalized training vehicles, such as in a classroom, by Web-based training, through guided self study, or via a formalized on-the-job training program. The formal or informal training vehicles employed for each situation should be based on an assessment of the need for training and the performance gap to be addressed. The term “training” used throughout this process area is used broadly to include all of these learning options.  [PA158.N105]

Success in training can be measured in terms of the availability of opportunities to acquire the skills and knowledge needed to perform new and ongoing enterprise activities.  [PA158.N106]

Skills and knowledge may be technical, organizational, or contextual. Technical skills pertain to the ability to use the equipment, tools, materials, data, and processes required by a project or process. Organizational skills pertain to behavior within and according to the employee's organization structure, role and responsibilities, and general operating principles and methods. Contextual skills are the self-management, communication, and interpersonal abilities needed to successfully perform in the organizational and social context of the project and support groups.  [PA158.N107]

The phrase “project and support groups” is used frequently in the text of the process area description to indicate an organization-level perspective.  [PA158.N108]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about the organization's process assets.  [PA158.R101]

Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about the specific training needs identified by projects.  [PA158.R102]

Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for how to apply decision-making criteria when determining training approaches.  [PA158.R103]

Specific Goals

SG 1           Establish an Organizational Training Capability  [PA158.IG101]

                   A training capability that supports the organization's management and technical roles is established and maintained.

SG 2           Provide Necessary Training  [PA158.IG102]

                   Training necessary for individuals to perform their roles effectively is provided.

Generic Goals

GG 1           Achieve Specific Goals   [CL102.GL101]

                   The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GG 2           Institutionalize a Managed Process  [CL103.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GG 3           Institutionalize a Defined Process  [CL104.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GG 4           Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process  [CL105.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GG 5           Institutionalize an Optimizing Process  [CL106.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

Practice-to-Goal Relationship Table

SG 1 Establish an Organizational Training Capability  [PA158.IG101]

SP 1.1-1      Establish the Strategic Training Needs

SP 1.2-1      Determine Which Training Needs Are the Responsibility of the Organization

SP 1.3-1      Establish an Organizational Training Tactical Plan

SP 1.4-1      Establish Training Capability

SG 2 Provide Necessary Training  [PA158.IG102]

SP 2.1-1      Deliver Training

SP 2.2-1      Establish Training Records

SP 2.3-1      Assess Training Effectiveness

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals   [CL102.GL101]

GP 1.1        Perform Base Practices

GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process  [CL103.GL101]

GP 2.1        Establish an Organizational Policy

GP 2.2        Plan the Process

GP 2.3        Provide Resources

GP 2.4        Assign Responsibility

GP 2.5        Train People

GP 2.6        Manage Configurations

GP 2.7        Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

GP 2.8        Monitor and Control the Process

GP 2.9        Objectively Evaluate Adherence

GP 2.10      Review Status with Higher Level Management

GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process  [CL104.GL101]

GP 3.1        Establish a Defined Process

GP 3.2        Collect Improvement Information

GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process  [CL105.GL101]

GP 4.1        Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

GP 4.2        Stabilize Subprocess Performance

GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process  [CL106.GL101]

GP 5.1        Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

GP 5.2        Correct Root Causes of Problems

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1           Establish an Organizational Training Capability

                   A training capability that supports the organization's management and technical roles is established and maintained.  [PA158.IG101]

The organization identifies the training required to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to perform enterprise activities. Once the needs are identified, a training program addressing those needs is developed.  [PA158.IG101.N101]

For Integrated Product and Process Development

Cross-functional training, leadership training, interpersonal skills training, and training in the skills needed to integrate appropriate business and technical functions is needed by integrated team members. The potentially wider range of requirements and participant backgrounds may require relevant stakeholders who were not involved in requirements development to take cross training in the disciplines involved in product design in order to commit to requirements with a full understanding of the range of requirements and their interrelationships.  [PA158.IG101.AMP101]

SP 1.1-1      Establish the Strategic Training Needs

Establish and maintain the strategic training needs of the organization.  [PA158.IG101.SP101]

Examples of sources of strategic training needs include the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP101.N101]

           Organization's standard processes

           Organization's strategic business plan

           Organization's process-improvement plan

           Enterprise-level initiatives

           Skill appraisals

           Risk analyses

 

Typical Work Products

1.    Training needs  [PA158.IG101.SP101.W101]

2.    Assessment analysis  [PA158.IG101.SP101.W102]

Subpractices

1.    Analyze the organization's strategic business objectives and process-improvement plan to identify potential future training needs.  [PA158.IG101.SP101.SubP101]

2.    Document the strategic training needs of the organization.  [PA158.IG101.SP101.SubP102]

Examples of categories of training needs include (but are not limited to) the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP101.SubP102.N101]

       Process analysis and documentation

       Engineering (e.g., requirements analysis, design, testing, configuration management, and quality assurance)

       Selection and management of suppliers

       Management (e.g., estimating, tracking, and risk management)

 

3.    Determine the roles and skills needed to perform the organization's set of standard processes.  [PA158.IG101.SP101.SubP103]

4.    Document the training needed to perform the roles in the organization's set of standard processes.  [PA158.IG101.SP101.SubP104]

5.    Revise the organization’s strategic needs and required training as necessary.  [PA158.IG101.SP101.SubP105]

SP 1.2-1      Determine Which Training Needs Are the Responsibility of the Organization

Determine which training needs are the responsibility of the organization and which will be left to the individual project or support group.  [PA158.IG101.SP102]

Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about project- and support-group-specific plans for training.  [PA158.IG101.SP102.R101]

In addition to strategic training needs, organizational training addresses training requirements that are common across projects and support groups. Projects and support groups have the primary responsibility for identifying and addressing their specific training needs. The organization’s training staff is only responsible for addressing common cross-project and support-group training needs. In some cases, however, the organization’s training staff may address additional training needs of projects and support groups, as negotiated with them, within the context of the training resources available and the organization's training priorities.  [PA158.IG101.SP102.N101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Common project and support group training needs  [PA158.IG101.SP102.W101]

2.    Training commitments  [PA158.IG101.SP102.W102]

Subpractices

1.    Analyze the training needs identified by the various projects and support groups.  [PA158.IG101.SP102.SubP101]

Analysis of project and support group needs is intended to identify common training needs that can be most efficiently addressed organization wide. These needs-analysis activities are used to anticipate future training needs that are first visible at the project and support group level.  [PA158.IG101.SP102.SubP101.N101]

2.    Negotiate with the various projects and support groups on how their specific training needs will be satisfied.  [PA158.IG101.SP102.SubP102]

The support provided by the organization’s training staff depends on the training resources available and the organization’s training priorities.  [PA158.IG101.SP102.SubP102.N101]

Examples of training appropriately performed by the project or support group include the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP102.SubP102.N102]

       Training in the application domain of the project

       Training in the unique tools and methods used by the project or support group

 

3.    Document the commitments for providing training support to the projects and support groups.  [PA158.IG101.SP102.SubP103]

SP 1.3-1      Establish an Organizational Training Tactical Plan

Establish and maintain an organizational training tactical plan.  [PA158.IG101.SP103]

The organizational training tactical plan is the plan to deliver the training that is the responsibility of the organization. This plan is adjusted periodically in response to changes (e.g., in needs or resources) and to evaluations of effectiveness.  [PA158.IG101.SP103.N101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Organizational training tactical plan  [PA158.IG101.SP103.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Establish plan content.  [PA158.IG101.SP103.SubP101]

Organizational training tactical plans typically contain the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP103.SubP101.N101]

       Training needs

       Training topics

       Schedules based on training activities and their dependencies

       Methods used for training

       Requirements and quality standards for training materials

       Training tasks, roles, and responsibilities

       Required resources including tools, facilities, environments, staffing, and skills and knowledge

2.    Establish commitments to the plan.  [PA158.IG101.SP103.SubP102]

Documented commitments by those responsible for implementing and supporting the plan are essential for the plan to be effective.  [PA158.IG101.SP103.SubP102.N101]

3.    Revise plan and commitments as necessary.  [PA158.IG101.SP103.SubP103]

SP 1.4-1      Establish Training Capability

Establish and maintain training capability to address organizational training needs.  [PA158.IG101.SP104]

Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for how to apply decision-making criteria when selecting training approaches and developing training materials.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.R101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Training materials and supporting artifacts  [PA158.IG101.SP104.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Select the appropriate approaches to satisfy specific organizational training needs.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP101]

Many factors may affect the selection of training approaches, including audience-specific knowledge, costs and schedule, work environment, and so on. Selection of an approach requires consideration of the means to provide skills and knowledge in the most effective way possible given the constraints.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP101.N101]

Examples of training approaches include the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP101.N102]

       Classroom training

       Computer-aided instruction

       Guided self study

       Formal apprenticeship and mentoring programs

       Facilitated videos

       Chalk talks

       Brown-bag lunch seminars

       Structured on-the-job training

 

2.    Determine whether to develop training materials internally or acquire them externally.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP102]

Determine the costs and benefits of internal training development or of obtaining training externally.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP102.N101]

Example criteria that can be used to determine the most effective mode of knowledge or skill acquisition include the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP102.N102]

       Performance objectives

       Time available to prepare for project execution

       Business objectives

       Availability of in-house expertise

       Availability of training from external sources

 

Examples of external sources of training include the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP102.N103]

       Customer-provided training

       Commercially available training courses

       Academic programs

       Professional conferences

       Seminars

 

3.    Develop or obtain training materials.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP103]

Training may be provided by the project, by support groups, by the organization, or by an external organization. The organization's training staff coordinates the acquisition and delivery of training regardless of its source.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP103.N101]

Examples of training materials include the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP103.N102]

       Courses

       Computer-aided instruction

       Videos

 

4.    Develop or obtain qualified instructors.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP106]

To ensure that internally provided training instructors have the necessary knowledge and training skills, criteria can be defined to identify, develop, and qualify them. In the case of externally provided training, the organization’s training staff may investigate how the training provider determines which instructors will deliver the training. This can also be a factor in selecting or continuing to use a specific training provider.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP106.N101]

5.    Describe the training in the organization's training curriculum.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP104]

Examples of the information provided in the training descriptions for each course include the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP104.N101]

       Topics covered in the training

       Intended audience

       Prerequisites and preparation for participating

       Training objectives

       Length of the training

       Lesson plans

       Completion criteria for the course

       Criteria for granting training waivers

 

6.    Revise the training materials and supporting artifacts as necessary.  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP105]

Examples of situations in which the training materials and supporting artifacts may need to be revised include the following:  [PA158.IG101.SP104.SubP105.N101]

       Training needs change (e.g., when new technology associated with the training topic is available)

       An evaluation of the training identifies the need for change (e.g., evaluations of training-effectiveness surveys, training program performance assessments, or instructor evaluation forms)

 

SG 2           Provide Necessary Training

                   Training necessary for individuals to perform their roles effectively is provided.  [PA158.IG102]

In selecting people to be trained, the following should be taken into consideration:  [PA158.IG102.N101]

           Background of the target population of training participants

           Prerequisite background to receive training

           Skills and abilities needed by people to perform their roles

           Need for cross-discipline technical-management training for all disciplines, including project management

           Need for managers to have training in appropriate organizational processes

           Need for training in the basic principles of discipline-specific engineering to support personnel in quality management, configuration management, and other related support functions

           Need to provide competency development for critical functional areas

SP 2.1-1      Deliver Training

Deliver the training following the organizational training tactical plan.  [PA158.IG102.SP101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Delivered training course  [PA158.IG102.SP101.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Select the people who will receive the training.  [PA158.IG102.SP101.SubP101]

Training is intended to impart knowledge and skills to people performing various roles within the organization. Some people already possess the knowledge and skills required to perform well in their designated roles. Training can be waived for these people, but care should be taken that training waivers are not abused.  [PA158.IG102.SP101.SubP101.N101]

2.    Schedule the training, including any resources, as necessary (e.g., facilities and instructors).  [PA158.IG102.SP101.SubP102]

Training should be planned and scheduled. Training is provided that has a direct bearing on the expectations of work performance. Therefore, optimal training occurs in a timely manner with regard to imminent job-performance expectations. These expectations often include the following:  [PA158.IG102.SP101.SubP102.N101]

       Training in the use of specialized tools

       Training in procedures that are new to the individual who will perform them

3.    Conduct the training.  [PA158.IG102.SP101.SubP103]

Experienced instructors should perform training. When possible, training is conducted in settings that closely resemble actual performance conditions and includes activities to simulate actual work situations. This approach includes integration of tools, methods, and procedures for competency development. Training is tied to work responsibilities so that on-the-job activities or other outside experiences will reinforce the training within a reasonable time after the training.  [PA158.IG102.SP101.SubP103.N101]

4.    Track the delivery of training against the plan.  [PA158.IG102.SP101.SubP104]

SP 2.2-1      Establish Training Records

Establish and maintain records of the organizational training.  [PA158.IG102.SP102]

Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for information on how project- or support-group training records are maintained.  [PA158.IG102.SP102.R101]

The scope of this practice is for the training performed at the organizational level. Establishment and maintenance of training records for project- or support-group-sponsored training is the responsibility of each individual project or support group.  [PA158.IG102.SP102.N101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Training records  [PA158.IG102.SP102.W101]

2.    Training updates to the organizational repository  [PA158.IG102.SP102.W102]

Subpractices

1.    Keep records of all students who successfully complete each training course or other approved training activity as well as those who are unsuccessful.  [PA158.IG102.SP102.SubP101]

2.    Keep records of all staff who have been waived from specific training.  [PA158.IG102.SP102.SubP102]

The rationale for granting a waiver should be documented, and both the manager responsible and the manager of the excepted individual should approve the waiver for organizational training.  [PA158.IG102.SP102.SubP102.N101]

3.    Keep records of all students who successfully complete their designated required training.  [PA158.IG102.SP102.SubP103]

4.    Make training records available to the appropriate people for consideration in assignments.  [PA158.IG102.SP102.SubP104]

Training records may be part of a skills matrix developed by the training organization to provide a summary of the experience and education of people, as well as training sponsored by the organization.  [PA158.IG102.SP102.SubP104.N101]

SP 2.3-1      Assess Training Effectiveness

Assess the effectiveness of the organization’s training program.  [PA158.IG102.SP103]

A process should exist to determine the effectiveness of training (i.e., how well the training is meeting the organization’s needs).  [PA158.IG102.SP103.N101]

Examples of methods used to assess training effectiveness include the following:  [PA158.IG102.SP103.N103]

           Testing in the training context

           Post-training surveys of training participants

           Surveys of managers’ satisfaction with post-training effects

           Assessment mechanisms embedded in courseware

 

Measures may be taken to assess the added value of the training against both the project’s and organization’s objectives. Particular attention should be paid to the need for various training methods, such as training teams as integral work units. When used, performance objectives should be shared with course participants, and should be unambiguous, observable, and verifiable. The results of the training-effectiveness assessment should be used to revise training materials as described in the Establish Training Capability specific practice above.  [PA158.IG102.SP103.N102]

Typical Work Products

1.    Training-effectiveness surveys  [PA158.IG102.SP103.W101]

2.    Training program performance assessments  [PA158.IG102.SP103.W102]

3.    Instructor evaluation forms  [PA158.IG102.SP103.W103]

4.    Training examinations  [PA158.IG102.SP103.W104]

Subpractices

1.    Assess in-progress or completed projects to determine whether staff knowledge is adequate for performing project tasks.  [PA158.IG102.SP103.SubP101]

2.    Provide a mechanism for assessing the effectiveness of each training course with respect to established organizational, project, or individual learning (or performance) objectives.  [PA158.IG102.SP103.SubP102]

3.    Obtain student evaluations of how well training activities met their needs.  [PA158.IG102.SP103.SubP103]

Generic Practices by Goal

(Note: The detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window. However, the GP elaborations pertinent to the process area of this web page are available below.)

GG 1           Achieve Specific Goals

                   The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GP 1.1        Perform Base Practices

Perform the base practices of the organizational training process to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area.  [GP102]

GG 2           Institutionalize a Managed Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GP 2.1        Establish an Organizational Policy

Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the organizational training process.  [GP103]

Elaboration:

This policy establishes organizational expectations for identifying the strategic training needs of the organization, and providing that training.  [PA158.EL101]

GP 2.2        Plan the Process

Establish and maintain the plan for performing the organizational training process.  [GP104]

Elaboration:

This plan for performing the organizational training process differs from the tactical plan for organizational training described in a specific practice in this process area. The plan called for in this generic practice would address the comprehensive planning for all of the specific practices in this process area, from the establishment of strategic training needs all the way through to the assessment of the effectiveness of the organizational training effort. In contrast, the organizational training tactical plan called for in the specific practice would address the periodic planning for the delivery of individual training offerings.  [PA158.EL102]

GP 2.3        Provide Resources

Provide adequate resources for performing the organizational training process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process.  [GP105]

Elaboration:

Examples of people (full or part time, internal or external), and skills needed include the following:  [PA158.EL104]

           Subject matter experts

           Curriculum designers

           Instructional designers

           Instructors

           Training administrators

 

Special facilities may be required for training. When necessary, the facilities required for the activities in the Organizational Training process area are developed or purchased.  [PA158.EL118]

Examples of other resources provided include the following tools:  [PA158.EL106]

           Instruments for analyzing training needs

           Workstations to be used for training

           Instructional design tools

           Packages for developing presentation materials

 

GP 2.4        Assign Responsibility

Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the organizational training process.  [GP106]

GP 2.5        Train People

Train the people performing or supporting the organizational training process as needed.  [GP107]

Elaboration:

Examples of training topics include the following:  [PA158.EL108]

           Knowledge and skills needs analysis

           Instructional design

           Instructional techniques (e.g., train the trainer)

           Refresher training on subject matter

 

GP 2.6        Manage Configurations

Place designated work products of the organizational training process under appropriate levels of configuration management.  [GP109]

Elaboration:

Examples of work products placed under configuration management include the following:  [PA158.EL109]

           Organizational training tactical plan

           Training records

           Training materials and supporting artifacts

           Instructor evaluation forms

 

GP 2.7        Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the organizational training process as planned.  [GP124]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following:  [PA158.EL119]

           Establishing a collaborative environment for discussion of training needs and training effectiveness to ensure that the organization’s training needs are met

           Identifying training needs

           Reviewing the organizational training tactical plan

           Assessing training effectiveness

 

GP 2.8        Monitor and Control the Process

Monitor and control the organizational training process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action.  [GP110]

Elaboration:

Examples of measures used in monitoring and controlling include the following:  [PA158.EL112]

           Number of training courses delivered (e.g., planned versus actual)

           Post-training evaluation ratings

           Training program quality survey ratings

 

GP 2.9        Objectively Evaluate Adherence

Objectively evaluate adherence of the organizational training process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance.  [GP113]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities reviewed include the following:  [PA158.EL114]

           Identifying training needs and making training available

           Providing necessary training

 

Examples of work products reviewed include the following:  [PA158.EL116]

           Organizational training tactical plan

           Training materials and supporting artifacts

           Instructor evaluation forms

 

GP 2.10      Review Status with Higher Level Management

Review the activities, status, and results of the organizational training process with higher level management and resolve issues.  [GP112]

GG 3           Institutionalize a Defined Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GP 3.1        Establish a Defined Process

Establish and maintain the description of a defined organizational training process.  [GP114]

GP 3.2        Collect Improvement Information

Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the organizational training process to support the future use and improvement of the organization’s processes and process assets.  [GP117]

GG 4           Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GP 4.1        Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for the organizational training process that address quality and process performance based on customer needs and business objectives.  [GP118]

GP 4.2        Stabilize Subprocess Performance

Stabilize the performance of one or more subprocesses to determine the ability of the organizational training process to achieve the established quantitative quality and process-performance objectives.  [GP119]

GG 5           Institutionalize an Optimizing Process

                   The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

GP 5.1        Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

Ensure continuous improvement of the organizational training process in fulfilling the relevant business objectives of the organization.  [GP125]

GP 5.2        Correct Root Causes of Problems

Identify and correct the root causes of defects and other problems in the organizational training process.  [GP121]