Organizational Process Performance (OPP)  Category: Process Management

Notes:

        The contents of this web page were extracted from the following document: Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM), Version 1.1, Continuous Representation, CMU/SEI-2002-TR-011, March 2002 (CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/SS). Copyright 2002 by Carnegie Mellon University. NO WARRANTY.

        Ignore the identifiers in square brackets that appear at the end of paragraphs.

        The formatting may not be the same as in the printed CMMI document. The web page is best viewed in Internet Explorer.

        In the CMMI, a subset is known as a "Process Area (PA)" and a requirement is known as a "Practice". The specific practices are referred to as SPs and the generic practices are referred to as GPs.

        This web page contains the text for SPs and GPs as it appears in Chapter 7 of the CMMI document, in the section corresponding to the process area named in the heading of this page. This web page does not include the detailed description of the GPs that appears in a separate chapter of the CMMI document; the detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. (Note: Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window.)

Purpose   The purpose of Organizational Process Performance is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization’s set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects.  [PA164]

Introductory Notes   Process performance is a measure of the actual results achieved by following a process. Process performance is characterized by both process measures (e.g., effort, cycle time, and defect removal effectiveness) and product measures (e.g., reliability and defect density).  [PA164.N101]

The common measures for the organization are composed of process and product measures that can be used to summarize the actual performance of processes in individual projects in the organization. The organizational data for these measures are analyzed to establish a distribution and range of results, which characterize the expected performance of the process when used on any individual project in the organization.  [PA164.N102]

In this process area, the phrase “quality and process-performance objectives” covers objectives and requirements for product quality, service quality, and process performance. As indicated above, the term “process performance” includes product quality; however, to emphasize the importance of product quality, the phrase “quality and process-performance objectives” is used rather than just “process-performance objectives.”  [PA164.N106]

The expected process performance can be used in establishing the project’s quality and process-performance objectives and can be used as a baseline against which actual project performance can be compared. This information is used to quantitatively manage the project. Each quantitatively managed project, in turn, provides actual performance results that become a part of the baseline data for the organizational process assets.  [PA164.N103]

The associated process performance models are used to represent past and current process performance and to predict future results of the process. For example, the latent defects in the delivered product can be predicted using measurements of defects identified during the product verification activities.  [PA164.N104]

When the organization has measures, data, and analytic techniques for critical process and product characteristics, it is able to do the following:  [PA164.N105]

           Determine whether processes are behaving consistently or have stable trends (i.e., are predictable)

           Identify processes where the performance is within natural bounds that are consistent across process implementation teams

           Establish criteria for identifying whether a process or process element should be statistically managed, and determine pertinent measures and analytic techniques to be used in such management

           Identify processes that show unusual (e.g., sporadic or unpredictable) behavior

           Identify any aspects of the processes that can be improved in the organization's set of standard processes

           Identify the implementation of a process which performs best

Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about the use of process performance baselines and models.  [PA164.R101]

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about specifying measures and collecting and analyzing data.  [PA164.R102]

Specific Goals

SG 1           Establish Performance Baselines and Models  [PA164.IG101]

                   Baselines and models that characterize the expected process performance of the organization's set of standard processes are established and maintained.

Generic Goals

GG 1           Achieve Specific Goals   [CL102.GL101]

                   The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GG 2           Institutionalize a Managed Process  [CL103.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GG 3           Institutionalize a Defined Process  [CL104.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GG 4           Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process  [CL105.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GG 5           Institutionalize an Optimizing Process  [CL106.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

Practice-to-Goal Relationship Table

SG 1 Establish Performance Baselines and Models  [PA164.IG101]

SP 1.1-1      Select Processes

SP 1.2-1      Establish Process Performance Measures

SP 1.3-1      Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives

SP 1.4-1      Establish Process Performance Baselines

SP 1.5-1      Establish Process Performance Models

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals   [CL102.GL101]

GP 1.1        Perform Base Practices

GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process  [CL103.GL101]

GP 2.1        Establish an Organizational Policy

GP 2.2        Plan the Process

GP 2.3        Provide Resources

GP 2.4        Assign Responsibility

GP 2.5        Train People

GP 2.6        Manage Configurations

GP 2.7        Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

GP 2.8        Monitor and Control the Process

GP 2.9        Objectively Evaluate Adherence

GP 2.10      Review Status with Higher Level Management

GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process  [CL104.GL101]

GP 3.1        Establish a Defined Process

GP 3.2        Collect Improvement Information

GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process  [CL105.GL101]

GP 4.1        Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

GP 4.2        Stabilize Subprocess Performance

GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process  [CL106.GL101]

GP 5.1        Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

GP 5.2        Correct Root Causes of Problems

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1           Establish Performance Baselines and Models

                   Baselines and models that characterize the expected process performance of the organization's set of standard processes are established and maintained.  [PA164.IG101]

Prior to establishing process performance baselines and models, it is necessary to determine which processes are suitable to be measured (the Select Processes specific practice), which measures are useful for determining process performance (the Establish Process Performance Measures specific practice), and the quality and process-performance objectives for those processes (the Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives specific practice). These specific practices are often interrelated and may need to be performed concurrently to select the appropriate processes, measures, and quality and process-performance objectives. Often, the selection of one process, measure, or objective will constrain the selection of the others. For example, if a certain process is selected, the measures and objectives for that process may be constrained by the process itself.  [PA164.IG101.N101]

SP 1.1-1      Select Processes

Select the processes or process elements in the organization's set of standard processes that are to be included in the organization's process performance analyses.  [PA164.IG101.SP101]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about the structure of the organizational process assets.  [PA164.IG101.SP101.R101]

The organization's set of standard processes consists of a set of standard processes that, in turn, are composed of process elements.  [PA164.IG101.SP101.N101]

Typically, it will not be possible, useful, or economically justifiable to apply statistical management techniques to all processes or process elements of the organization's set of standard processes. Selection of the processes and/or process elements is based upon the needs and objectives of both the organization and projects.  [PA164.IG101.SP101.N102]

Typical Work Products

1.    List of processes or process elements identified for process performance analyses  [PA164.IG101.SP101.W101]

SP 1.2-1      Establish Process Performance Measures

Establish and maintain definitions of the measures that are to be included in the organization's process performance analyses.  [PA164.IG101.SP102]

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about selecting measures.  [PA164.IG101.SP102.R101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Definitions for the selected measures of process performance  [PA164.IG101.SP102.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Determine which of the organization's business objectives for quality and process performance need to be addressed by the measures.  [PA164.IG101.SP102.SubP101]

2.    Select measures that provide appropriate insight into the organization's quality and process performance.  [PA164.IG101.SP102.SubP102]

The Goal Question Metric paradigm is an approach that can be used to select measures that provide insight into the organization’s business objectives.  [PA164.IG101.SP102.SubP102.N101]

Examples of criteria used to select measures include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP102.SubP102.N102]

       Relationship of the measures to the organization’s business objectives

       Coverage that the measures provide over the entire life of the product

       Visibility that the measures provide into the process performance

       Availability of the measures

       Extent to which the measures are objective

       Frequency at which the observations of the measure can be collected

       Extent to which the measures are controllable by changes to the process

       Extent to which the measures represent the users’ view of effective process performance

 

3.    Incorporate the selected measures into the organization's set of common measures.  [PA164.IG101.SP102.SubP103]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets.  [PA164.IG101.SP102.SubP103.R101]

4.    Revise the set of measures as necessary.  [PA164.IG101.SP102.SubP104]

SP 1.3-1      Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives

Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for quality and process performance for the organization.  [PA164.IG101.SP103]

The organization's quality and process-performance objectives should have the following attributes:  [PA164.IG101.SP103.N101]

           Based on the organization's business objectives

           Based on the past performance of projects

           Defined to gauge process performance in areas such as product quality, productivity, or cycle time

           Constrained by the inherent variability or natural bounds of the process

Typical Work Products

1.    Organization's quality and process-performance objectives  [PA164.IG101.SP103.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Review the organization's business objectives related to quality and process performance.  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP101]

Examples of business objectives include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP101.N101]

       Achieve a development cycle of a specified duration for a specified release of a product

       Decrease the cost of maintenance of the products by a specified percent

 

2.    Define the organization's quantitative objectives for quality and process performance.  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP102]

Objectives may be established for both process measurements (e.g., effort, cycle time, and defect removal effectiveness) and product measurements (e.g., reliability and defect density).  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP102.N101]

Examples of quality and process-performance objectives include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP102.N102]

       Achieve a specified productivity

       Deliver work products with no more than a specified number of latent defects

 

3.    Define the priorities of the organization's objectives for quality and process performance.  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP103]

4.    Review, negotiate, and obtain commitment for the organization's quality and process-performance objectives and their priorities from the relevant stakeholders.  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP104]

5.    Revise the organization's quantitative objectives for quality and process performance as necessary.  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP105]

Examples of when the organization’s quantitative objectives for quality and process performance may need to be revised include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP103.SubP105.N101]

       When the organization’s business objectives change

       When the organization’s processes change

       When actual quality and process performance differs significantly from the objectives

 

SP 1.4-1      Establish Process Performance Baselines

Establish and maintain the organization's process performance baselines.  [PA164.IG101.SP104]

The organization's process performance baselines are a measurement of performance for the organization's set of standard processes at various levels of detail, as appropriate. The processes include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP104.N101]

           Individual process elements (e.g., test-case inspection element)

           Sequence of connected processes

           Processes that cover the entire life of the project

           Processes for developing individual work products

There may be several process performance baselines to characterize performance for subgroups of the organization.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.N102]

Examples of criteria used to categorize subgroups include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP104.N104]

           Product line

           Application domain

           Complexity

           Team size

           Work product size

           Process elements from the organization's set of standard processes

 

Allowable tailoring of the organization’s set of standard processes may significantly affect the comparability of the data for inclusion in process performance baselines. The effects of tailoring should be considered in establishing baselines.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.N103]

Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about the use of process performance baselines.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.N103.R101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Baseline data on the organization’s process performance  [PA164.IG101.SP104.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Collect measurements from the organization’s projects.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP101]

The process in use when the measurement was taken is recorded to enable appropriate use at a later date.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP101.N101]

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for information about collecting and analyzing data.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP101.N101.R101]

2.    Establish and maintain the organization's process performance baselines from the collected measurements and analyses.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP102]

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for information about establishing objectives for measurement and analysis, specifying the measures and analyses to be performed, obtaining and analyzing measures, and reporting results.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP102.R101]

Process performance baselines are derived by analyzing the collected measures to establish a distribution and range of results that characterize the expected performance for selected processes when used on any individual project in the organization.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP102.N102]

The measurements from stable processes from projects should be used; other data may not be reliable.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP102.N101]

3.    Review and get agreement with relevant stakeholders about the organization's process performance baselines.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP103]

4.    Make the organization's process performance information available across the organization in the organization's measurement repository.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP104]

The organization's process performance baselines are used by the projects to estimate the natural bounds for process performance.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP104.N101]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing the organization’s measurement repository.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP104.N101.R101]

5.    Compare the organization’s process performance baselines to the associated objectives.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP105]

6.    Revise the organization's process performance baselines as necessary.  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP106]

Examples of when the organization’s process performance baselines may need to be revised include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP104.SubP106.N101]

       When the processes change

       When the organization’s results change

       When the organization’s needs change

 

SP 1.5-1      Establish Process Performance Models

Establish and maintain the process performance models for the organization's set of standard processes.  [PA164.IG101.SP105]

Process performance models are used to estimate or predict the value of a process performance measure from the values of other process and product measurements. These process performance models typically use process and product measurements collected throughout the life of the project to estimate progress toward achieving objectives that cannot be measured until later in the project’s life.  [PA164.IG101.SP105.N101]

The process performance models are used as follows:  [PA164.IG101.SP105.N102]

           The organization uses them for estimating, analyzing, and predicting the process performance associated with the processes in the organization's set of standard processes.

           The organization uses them to assess the (potential) return on investment for process-improvement activities.

           Projects use them for estimating, analyzing, and predicting the process performance for their defined processes.

           Projects use them for selecting processes for use.

These measures and models are defined to provide insight into and to provide the ability to predict critical process and product characteristics that are relevant to business value.  [PA164.IG101.SP105.N103]

Examples of areas of concern to projects in which models may be useful include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP105.N104]

           Schedule and cost

           Reliability

           Defect identification and removal rates

           Defect removal effectiveness

           Latent defect estimation

           Project progress

           Combinations of these areas

 

Examples of process performance models include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP105.N105]

           System dynamics models

           Reliability growth models

           Complexity models

 

Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about the use of process performance models.  [PA164.IG101.SP105.N105.R101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Process performance models  [PA164.IG101.SP105.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Establish the process performance models based on the organization's set of standard processes and the organization's process performance baselines.  [PA164.IG101.SP105.SubP101]

2.    Calibrate the process performance models based on the organization’s past results and current needs.  [PA164.IG101.SP105.SubP102]

3.    Review the process performance models and get agreement with relevant stakeholders.  [PA164.IG101.SP105.SubP103]

4.    Support the projects' use of the process performance models.  [PA164.IG101.SP105.SubP104]

5.    Revise the process performance models as necessary.  [PA164.IG101.SP105.SubP105]

Examples of when the process performance models may need to be revised include the following:  [PA164.IG101.SP105.SubP105.N101]

       When the processes change

       When the organization's results change

       When the organization's needs change

 

Generic Practices by Goal

(Note: The detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window. However, the GP elaborations pertinent to the process area of this web page are available below.)

GG 1           Achieve Specific Goals

                   The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GP 1.1        Perform Base Practices

Perform the base practices of the organizational process performance process to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area.  [GP102]

GG 2           Institutionalize a Managed Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GP 2.1        Establish an Organizational Policy

Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the organizational process performance process.  [GP103]

Elaboration:

This policy establishes organizational expectations for establishing and maintaining process performance baselines for the organization's set of standard processes.  [PA164.EL101]

GP 2.2        Plan the Process

Establish and maintain the plan for performing the organizational process performance process.  [GP104]

Elaboration:

This plan for performing the organizational process performance process may be included in or referenced by the organization’s process-improvement plan, which is described in the Organizational Process Focus process area, or it may be documented in a separate plan that describes only the plan for the organizational process performance process.  [PA164.EL113]

GP 2.3        Provide Resources

Provide adequate resources for performing the organizational process performance process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process.  [GP105]

Elaboration:

Special expertise in statistics and statistical process control may be needed to establish the process performance baselines for the organization's set of standard processes.  [PA164.EL111]

Examples of other resources provided include the following tools:  [PA164.EL102]

           Database management systems

           System dynamic models

           Process modeling tools

           Statistical analysis packages

           Problem-tracking packages

 

GP 2.4        Assign Responsibility

Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the organizational process performance process.  [GP106]

GP 2.5        Train People

Train the people performing or supporting the organizational process performance process as needed.  [GP107]

Elaboration:

Examples of training topics include the following:  [PA164.EL103]

           Process and process-improvement modeling

           Quantitative and statistical methods (e.g., estimating models, Pareto analysis, and control charts)

 

GP 2.6        Manage Configurations

Place designated work products of the organizational process performance process under appropriate levels of configuration management.  [GP109]

Elaboration:

Examples of work products placed under configuration management include the following:  [PA164.EL104]

           Organization’s quality and process-performance objectives

           Definition for the selected measures of process performance

           Baseline data on the organization's process performance

 

GP 2.7        Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the organizational process performance process as planned.  [GP124]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following:  [PA164.EL112]

           Establishing the organization’s quality and process-performance objectives and their priorities

           Reviewing and resolving issues on the organization’s process performance baselines

           Reviewing and resolving issues on the organization’s process performance models

 

GP 2.8        Monitor and Control the Process

Monitor and control the organizational process performance process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action.  [GP110]

Elaboration:

Examples of measures used in monitoring and controlling include the following:  [PA164.EL105]

           Trends in the organization’s process performance with respect to changes in work products and task attributes (e.g., size growth, effort, schedule, and quality)

 

GP 2.9        Objectively Evaluate Adherence

Objectively evaluate adherence of the organizational process performance process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance.  [GP113]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities reviewed include the following:  [PA164.EL106]

           Establishing process performance baselines and models

 

Examples of work products reviewed include the following:  [PA164.EL110]

           Process performance plans

           Organization’s quality and process-performance objectives

           Definition for the selected measures of process performance

 

GP 2.10      Review Status with Higher Level Management

Review the activities, status, and results of the organizational process performance process with higher level management and resolve issues.  [GP112]

GG 3           Institutionalize a Defined Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GP 3.1        Establish a Defined Process

Establish and maintain the description of a defined organizational process performance process.  [GP114]

GP 3.2        Collect Improvement Information

Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the organizational process performance process to support the future use and improvement of the organization’s processes and process assets.  [GP117]

GG 4           Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GP 4.1        Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for the organizational process performance process that address quality and process performance based on customer needs and business objectives.  [GP118]

GP 4.2        Stabilize Subprocess Performance

Stabilize the performance of one or more subprocesses to determine the ability of the organizational process performance process to achieve the established quantitative quality and process-performance objectives.  [GP119]

GG 5           Institutionalize an Optimizing Process

                   The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

GP 5.1        Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

Ensure continuous improvement of the organizational process performance process in fulfilling the relevant business objectives of the organization.  [GP125]

GP 5.2        Correct Root Causes of Problems

Identify and correct the root causes of defects and other problems in the organizational process performance process.  [GP121]