Organizational Process Focus (OPF)  Category: Process Management

Notes:

        The contents of this web page were extracted from the following document: Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM), Version 1.1, Continuous Representation, CMU/SEI-2002-TR-011, March 2002 (CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/SS). Copyright 2002 by Carnegie Mellon University. NO WARRANTY.

        Ignore the identifiers in square brackets that appear at the end of paragraphs.

        The formatting may not be the same as in the printed CMMI document. The web page is best viewed in Internet Explorer.

        In the CMMI, a subset is known as a "Process Area (PA)" and a requirement is known as a "Practice". The specific practices are referred to as SPs and the generic practices are referred to as GPs.

        This web page contains the text for SPs and GPs as it appears in Chapter 7 of the CMMI document, in the section corresponding to the process area named in the heading of this page. This web page does not include the detailed description of the GPs that appears in a separate chapter of the CMMI document; the detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. (Note: Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window.)

Purpose  The purpose of Organizational Process Focus is to plan and implement organizational process improvement based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes and process assets.  [PA152]

Introductory Notes

The organization's processes include the organization's set of standard processes and the defined processes that are tailored from them. The organizational process assets are used to establish, maintain, implement, and improve the defined processes. See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “organizational process assets” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.  [PA152.N101]

Candidate improvements to the organizational process assets are obtained from various sources, including measurement of the processes, lessons learned in implementing the processes, results of process appraisals, results of product evaluation activities, results of benchmarking against other organizations' processes, and recommendations from other improvement initiatives in the organization.  [PA152.N102]

Process improvement occurs within the context of the organization’s needs and is used to address the organization's objectives. The organization encourages participation in process-improvement activities by those who will perform the process. The responsibility for facilitating and managing the organization's process-improvement activities, including coordinating the participation of others, is typically assigned to a process group. The organization provides the long-term commitment and resources required to sponsor this group.  [PA152.N103]

Careful planning is required to ensure that process-improvement efforts across the organization are adequately managed and implemented. The organization’s planning for process-improvement results in a process-improvement plan. The organization’s process-improvement plan will address appraisal planning, process action planning, pilot planning, and deployment planning. Appraisal plans describe the appraisal timeline and schedule, the scope of the appraisal, the resources required to perform the appraisal, the reference model against which the appraisal will be performed, and the logistics for the appraisal. Process action plans usually result from appraisals and document how specific improvements targeting the weaknesses uncovered by an appraisal will be implemented. In cases in which it is determined that the improvement described in the process action plan should be tested on a small group before deploying it across the organization, a pilot plan is generated. Finally, when the improvement is to be deployed, a deployment plan is used. This plan describes when and how the improvement will be deployed across the organization.  [PA152.N104]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about the organizational process assets.  [PA152.R101]

Specific Goals

SG 1           Determine Process-Improvement Opportunities  [PA152.IG101]

                   Strengths, weaknesses, and improvement opportunities for the organization's processes are identified periodically and as needed.

SG 2           Plan and Implement Process-Improvement Activities  [PA152.IG102]

                   Improvements are planned and implemented, organizational process assets are deployed, and process-related experiences are incorporated into the organizational process assets.

Generic Goals

GG 1           Achieve Specific Goals   [CL102.GL101]

                   The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GG 2           Institutionalize a Managed Process  [CL103.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GG 3           Institutionalize a Defined Process  [CL104.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GG 4           Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process  [CL105.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GG 5           Institutionalize an Optimizing Process  [CL106.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

Practice-to-Goal Relationship Table

SG 1 Determine Process-Improvement Opportunities  [PA152.IG101]

SP 1.1-1      Establish Organizational Process Needs

SP 1.2-1      Appraise the Organization’s Processes

SP 1.3-1      Identify the Organization's Process Improvements

SG 2 Plan and Implement Process-Improvement Activities  [PA152.IG102]

SP 2.1-1      Establish Process Action Plans

SP 2.2-1      Implement Process Action Plans

SP 2.3-1      Deploy Organizational Process Assets

SP 2.4-1      Incorporate Process-Related Experiences into the Organizational Process Assets

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals   [CL102.GL101]

GP 1.1        Perform Base Practices

GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process  [CL103.GL101]

GP 2.1        Establish an Organizational Policy

GP 2.2        Plan the Process

GP 2.3        Provide Resources

GP 2.4        Assign Responsibility

GP 2.5        Train People

GP 2.6        Manage Configurations

GP 2.7        Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

GP 2.8        Monitor and Control the Process

GP 2.9        Objectively Evaluate Adherence

GP 2.10      Review Status with Higher Level Management

GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process  [CL104.GL101]

GP 3.1        Establish a Defined Process

GP 3.2        Collect Improvement Information

GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process  [CL105.GL101]

GP 4.1        Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

GP 4.2        Stabilize Subprocess Performance

GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process  [CL106.GL101]

GP 5.1        Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

GP 5.2        Correct Root Causes of Problems

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1           Determine Process-Improvement Opportunities

                   Strengths, weaknesses, and improvement opportunities for the organization's processes are identified periodically and as needed.  [PA152.IG101]

Strengths, weaknesses, and improvement opportunities may be determined relative to a process standard or model such as a CMMI model or International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard. The process improvements should be selected specifically to address the organization's needs.  [PA152.IG101.N101]

SP 1.1-1      Establish Organizational Process Needs

Establish and maintain the description of the process needs and objectives for the organization.  [PA152.IG101.SP101]

For Integrated Product and Process Development

Integrated processes that emphasize parallel rather than serial development are a cornerstone of IPPD implementation. Product development processes and product-related life-cycle processes, such as the manufacturing process development and the support process development processes, are conducted concurrently. Such integrated processes need to accommodate the information provided by stakeholders representing all phases of the product life cycle from both business and technical functions. Processes for effective teamwork will also be needed.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.AMP101]

For Integrated Product and Process Development

Examples of processes for effective teamwork include the following:  [PA152.IG101.SP101.AMP102]

  Communications

  Collaborative decision making

  Issue resolution

  Team building

 

The organization's processes operate in a business context that must be understood. The organization's business objectives, needs, and constraints determine the needs and objectives for the organization’s processes. Typically, the issues related to financial, technological, quality, human resource, and marketing are important process considerations.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.N101]

The organization's process needs and objectives cover aspects that include the following:  [PA152.IG101.SP101.N102]

           Characteristics of the processes

           Process performance objectives, such as time to market and product quality

           Process effectiveness

Typical Work Products

1.    Organization’s process needs and objectives  [PA152.IG101.SP101.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Identify the policies, standards, and business objectives that are applicable to the organization's processes.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP101]

2.    Examine relevant process standards and models for best practices.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP102]

3.    Determine the organization’s process performance objectives.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP103]

Process performance objectives may be expressed in quantitative or qualitative terms.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP103.N101]

Examples of process performance objectives include the following:  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP103.N102]

       Cycle time

       Defect removal rates

       Productivity

 

4.    Define the essential characteristics of the organization’s processes.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP104]

The essential characteristics of the organization’s processes are determined based on the following:  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP104.N101]

       Processes currently being used in the organization

       Process and product standards imposed by the organization

       Process and product standards commonly imposed by customers of the organization

Examples of process characteristics include the following:  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP104.N102]

       Level of detail used to describe the processes

       Process notation used

       Granularity of the processes

 

5.    Document the organization’s process needs and objectives.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP105]

6.    Revise the organization’s process needs and objectives as needed.  [PA152.IG101.SP101.SubP106]

SP 1.2-1      Appraise the Organization’s Processes

Appraise the processes of the organization periodically and as needed to maintain an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses.  [PA152.IG101.SP102]

Process appraisals may be performed for the following reasons:  [PA152.IG101.SP102.N101]

           To identify processes that should be improved

           To confirm progress and make the benefits of process improvement visible

           To satisfy the needs of a customer-supplier relationship

           To motivate and facilitate buy-in

The buy-in gained during a process appraisal can be eroded significantly if it is not followed by an appraisal-based action plan.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.N102]

Typical Work Products

1.    Plans for the organization's process appraisals  [PA152.IG101.SP102.W101]

2.    Appraisal findings that address strengths and weaknesses of the organization's processes  [PA152.IG101.SP102.W102]

3.    Improvement recommendations for the organization's processes  [PA152.IG101.SP102.W103]

Subpractices

1.    Obtain sponsorship of the process appraisal from senior management.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP101]

Senior-management sponsorship includes the commitment to have the organization's managers and staff participate in the process appraisal and to provide the resources and funding to analyze and communicate the findings of the appraisal.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP101.N101]

2.    Define the scope of the process appraisal.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP102]

Process appraisals may be performed on the entire organization or may be performed on a smaller part of an organization such as a single project or business area.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP102.N101]

The scope of the process appraisal addresses the following:  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP102.N102]

       Definition of the organization (e.g., sites or business areas) that will be covered by the appraisal

       Identification of the project and support functions that will represent the organization in the appraisal

       Processes that will be appraised

3.    Determine the method and criteria for process appraisal.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP103]

Process appraisals can occur in many forms. Process appraisals should address the needs and objectives of the organization, which may change over time. For example, the appraisal may be based on a process model, such as a CMMI model, or on a national or international standard, such as ISO 9001. The appraisals may also be based on a benchmark comparison with other organizations. The appraisal method may assume a variety of characteristics in terms of time and effort expended, makeup of the appraisal team, and the method and depth of investigation.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP103.N101]

4.    Plan, schedule, and prepare for the process appraisal.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP104]

5.    Conduct the process appraisal.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP105]

6.    Document and deliver the appraisal’s activities and findings.  [PA152.IG101.SP102.SubP106]

SP 1.3-1      Identify the Organization's Process Improvements

Identify improvements to the organization's processes and process assets.  [PA152.IG101.SP103]

Typical Work Products

1.    Analysis of candidate process improvements  [PA152.IG101.SP103.W101]

2.    Identification of improvements for the organization's processes  [PA152.IG101.SP103.W102]

Subpractices

1.    Determine candidate process improvements.  [PA152.IG101.SP103.SubP101]

Candidate process improvements are typically determined by doing the following:  [PA152.IG101.SP103.SubP101.N101]

       Measure the processes and analyze the measurement results

       Review the processes for effectiveness and suitability

       Review the lessons learned from tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes

       Review the lessons learned from implementing the processes

       Review process-improvement proposals submitted by the organization's managers and staff, and other relevant stakeholders

       Solicit inputs on process improvements from the senior management and leaders in the organization

       Examine the results of process appraisals and other process-related reviews

       Review results of other organization improvement initiatives

2.    Prioritize the candidate process improvements.  [PA152.IG101.SP103.SubP102]

Criteria for prioritization are as follows:  [PA152.IG101.SP103.SubP102.N101]

       Consider the estimated cost and effort to implement the process improvements

       Appraise the expected improvement against the organization's improvement objectives and priorities

       Determine the potential barriers to the process improvements and develop strategies for overcoming these barriers

Examples of techniques to help determine and prioritize the possible improvements to be implemented include the following:  [PA152.IG101.SP103.SubP102.N102]

       A gap analysis that compares current conditions in the organization with optimal conditions

       Force-field analysis of potential improvements to identify potential barriers and strategies for overcoming those barriers

       Cause-and-effect analyses to provide information on the potential effects of different improvements that can then be compared

 

3.    Identify and document the process improvements that will be implemented.  [PA152.IG101.SP103.SubP103]

4.    Revise the list of planned process improvements to keep it current.  [PA152.IG101.SP103.SubP104]

SG 2           Plan and Implement Process-Improvement Activities

                   Improvements are planned and implemented, organizational process assets are deployed, and process-related experiences are incorporated into the organizational process assets.  [PA152.IG102]

Successful implementation of improvements requires participation in the process definition and improvement activities by process owners, those performing the process, and support organizations.  [PA152.IG102.N101]

SP 2.1-1      Establish Process Action Plans

Establish and maintain process action plans to address improvements to the organization's processes and process assets.  [PA152.IG102.SP101]

Establishing and maintaining process action plans typically involves the following roles:  [PA152.IG102.SP101.N101]

           Management steering committees to set strategies and oversee process-improvement activities

           Process group staff to facilitate and manage the process-improvement activities

           Process action teams to define and implement the improvement

           Process owners to manage the deployment

           Practitioners to perform the process

This involvement helps to obtain buy-in on the process improvements and increases the likelihood of effective deployment.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.N102]

Process action plans are detailed implementation plans. These plans differ from the organization’s process-improvement plan in that they are plans targeting specific improvements that have been defined to address weaknesses usually uncovered by appraisals.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.N103]

Typical Work Products

1.    Organization's approved process action plans  [PA152.IG102.SP101.W101]

Subpractices

1.    Identify strategies, approaches, and actions to address the identified process improvements.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.SubP101]

New, unproven, and major changes are piloted before they are incorporated into normal use.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.SubP101.N101]

2.    Establish process action teams to implement the actions.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.SubP102]

The teams and people performing the process-improvement actions are called “process action teams.” Process action teams typically include process owners and those who perform the process.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.SubP102.N101]

3.    Document process action plans.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.SubP103]

Process action plans typically cover the following:  [PA152.IG102.SP101.SubP103.N101]

       Process-improvement infrastructure

       Process-improvement objectives

       Process improvements that will be addressed

       Procedures for planning and tracking process actions

       Strategies for piloting and implementing the process actions

       Responsibility and authority for implementing the process actions

       Resources, schedules, and assignments for implementing the process actions

       Methods for determining the effectiveness of the process actions

       Risks associated with process action plans

4.    Review and negotiate process action plans with relevant stakeholders.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.SubP104]

5.    Review process action plans as necessary.  [PA152.IG102.SP101.SubP105]

SP 2.2-1      Implement Process Action Plans

Implement process action plans across the organization.  [PA152.IG102.SP102]

Typical Work Products

1.    Commitments among the various process action teams  [PA152.IG102.SP102.W101]

2.    Status and results of implementing process action plans  [PA152.IG102.SP102.W102]

3.    Plans for pilots  [PA152.IG102.SP102.W103]

Subpractices

1.    Make process action plans readily available to relevant stakeholders.  [PA152.IG102.SP102.SubP101]

2.    Negotiate and document commitments among the process action teams and revise their process action plans as necessary.  [PA152.IG102.SP102.SubP102]

3.    Track progress and commitments against process action plans.  [PA152.IG102.SP102.SubP103]

4.    Conduct joint reviews with the process action teams and relevant stakeholders to monitor the progress and results of the process actions.  [PA152.IG102.SP102.SubP104]

5.    Plan pilots needed to test selected process improvements.  [PA152.IG102.SP102.SubP105]

6.    Review the activities and work products of process action teams.  [PA152.IG102.SP102.SubP106]

7.    Identify, document, and track to closure issues in implementing process action plans.  [PA152.IG102.SP102.SubP107]

8.    Ensure that the results of implementing process action plans satisfy the organization’s process-improvement objectives.  [PA152.IG102.SP102.SubP108]

SP 2.3-1      Deploy Organizational Process Assets

Deploy organizational process assets across the organization.  [PA152.IG102.SP103]

Deployment of organizational process assets or of changes to organizational process assets should be performed in an orderly manner. Some organizational process assets or changes to organizational process assets may not be appropriate for implementation in some parts of the organization (because of customer requirements or the current lifecycle phase being implemented, for example). It is therefore important that those that are or will be executing the process, as well as other organization functions (such as training and quality assurance) be involved in the deployment as necessary.  [PA152.IG102.SP103.N101]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about how the deployment of organizational process assets is supported and enabled by the organization’s process asset library.  [PA152.IG102.SP103.N101.R101]

Typical Work Products

1.    Plans for deploying the organizational process assets and changes to organizational process assets  [PA152.IG102.SP103.W101]

2.    Training materials for deploying the organizational process assets and changes to organizational process assets  [PA152.IG102.SP103.W102]

3.    Documentation of changes to the organizational process assets  [PA152.IG102.SP103.W103]

4.    Support materials for deploying the organizational process assets and changes to organizational process assets  [PA152.IG102.SP103.W104]

Subpractices

1.    Deploy organizational process assets and associated methods and tools.  [PA152.IG102.SP103.SubP101]

Typical activities performed as a part of this deployment include the following:  [PA152.IG102.SP103.SubP101.N101]

       Planning the deployment

       Identifying the organizational process assets that should be adopted by those who will be performing the process

       Ensuring that training is available for the organizational process assets that are being deployed

       Identifying the support resources (e.g., tools) needed to transition the deployed organizational process assets

       Determining the schedule for deploying the organizational process assets

Refer to the Organizational Training process area for more information about coordination of training.  [PA152.IG102.SP103.SubP101.N101.R101]

2.    Deploy the changes that were made to the organizational process assets.  [PA152.IG102.SP103.SubP102]

Typical activities performed as a part of this deployment include the following:  [PA152.IG102.SP103.SubP102.N101]

       Planning the deployment

       Determining which changes are appropriate for those that are or will be performing the process

       Determining the time frame for deploying the changes

       Arranging for the associated support needed to successfully transition the changes

3.    Document the changes to the organizational process assets.  [PA152.IG102.SP103.SubP103]

The documentation of changes is used to understand the relationship of the changes to resulting changes in process performance and results.  [PA152.IG102.SP103.SubP103.N101]

4.    Provide guidance and consultation on the use of the organizational process assets.  [PA152.IG102.SP103.SubP104]

SP 2.4-1      Incorporate Process-Related Experiences into the Organizational Process Assets

Incorporate process-related work products, measures, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the process into the organizational process assets.  [PA152.IG102.SP104]

Typical Work Products

1.    Process-improvement proposals  [PA152.IG102.SP104.W101]

2.    Process lessons learned  [PA152.IG102.SP104.W102]

3.    Measurements on the organizational process assets  [PA152.IG102.SP104.W103]

4.    Improvement recommendations for the organizational process assets  [PA152.IG102.SP104.W104]

5.    Records of the organization's process-improvement activities  [PA152.IG102.SP104.W105]

6.    Information on the organizational process assets and improvements to them  [PA152.IG102.SP104.W106]

Subpractices

1.    Conduct periodic reviews of the effectiveness and suitability of the organization’s set of standard processes and related organizational process assets relative to the organization’s business objectives.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP101]

2.    Obtain feedback about the use of the organizational process assets.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP102]

3.    Derive lessons learned from defining, piloting, implementing, and deploying the organizational process assets.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP103]

4.    Make lessons learned available to the people in the organization as appropriate.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP104]

Actions may have to be taken to ensure that lessons learned are used appropriately.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP104.N101]

Examples of inappropriate use of lessons learned include the following:  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP104.N102]

       Evaluating the performance of people

       Judging process performance or results

 

Examples of ways to prevent inappropriate use of lessons learned include the following:  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP104.N103]

       Controlling access to the lessons learned

       Educating people about the appropriate use of lessons learned

 

5.    Analyze the organization's common set of measures.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP105]

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about analyzing measures.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP105.R101]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing an organizational measurement repository, including common measures.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP105.R102]

6.    Appraise the processes, methods, and tools in use in the organization and develop recommendations for improving the organizational process assets.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP106]

This appraisal typically includes the following:  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP106.N101]

       Determining which of the processes, methods, and tools are of potential use to other parts of the organization

       Appraising the quality and effectiveness of the organizational process assets

       Identifying candidate improvements to the organizational process assets

       Determining compliance with the organization’s set of standard processes and tailoring guidelines

7.    Make the best use of the organization's processes, methods, and tools available to the people in the organization as appropriate.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP107]

8.    Manage process-improvement proposals.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP108]

The activities for managing process-improvement proposals typically include the following:  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP108.N101]

       Soliciting process-improvement proposals

       Collecting process-improvement proposals

       Reviewing the process-improvement proposals

       Selecting the process-improvement proposals that will be implemented

       Tracking the implementation of the process-improvement proposals

Process-improvement proposals are documented as process change requests or problem reports, as appropriate.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP108.N102]

Some process-improvement proposals may be incorporated into the organization’s process action plans.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP108.N103]

9.    Establish and maintain records of the organization's process-improvement activities.  [PA152.IG102.SP104.SubP109]

Generic Practices by Goal

(Note: The detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window. However, the GP elaborations pertinent to the process area of this web page are available below.)

GG 1           Achieve Specific Goals

                   The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GP 1.1        Perform Base Practices

Perform the base practices of the organizational process focus process to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area.  [GP102]

GG 2           Institutionalize a Managed Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GP 2.1        Establish an Organizational Policy

Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the organizational process focus process.  [GP103]

Elaboration:

This policy establishes organizational expectations for determining process-improvement opportunities for the processes being used and for planning and implementing process-improvement activities across the organization.  [PA152.EL101]

GP 2.2        Plan the Process

Establish and maintain the plan for performing the organizational process focus process.  [GP104]

Elaboration:

The plan for performing the organizational process focus process, which is often called “the process-improvement plan,” differs from the process action plans described in specific practices in this process area. The plan called for in this generic practice addresses the comprehensive planning for all of the specific practices in this process area, from the establishment of organizational process needs all the way through to the incorporation of process-related experiences into the organizational process assets.  [PA152.EL103]

GP 2.3        Provide Resources

Provide adequate resources for performing the organizational process focus process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process.  [GP105]

Elaboration:

Examples of resources provided include the following tools:  [PA152.EL106]

           Database management systems

           Process-improvement tools

           Web page builders and browsers

           Groupware

           Quality-improvement tools (e.g., quality-improvement tools, cause-and-effect diagrams, affinity diagrams, Pareto charts)

 

GP 2.4        Assign Responsibility

Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the organizational process focus process.  [GP106]

Elaboration:

Two groups are typically established and assigned responsibility for process improvement: (1) a management steering committee for process improvement to provide senior-management sponsorship; and (2) a process group to facilitate and manage the process-improvement activities.  [PA152.EL120]

GP 2.5        Train People

Train the people performing or supporting the organizational process focus process as needed.  [GP107]

Elaboration:

Examples of training topics include the following:  [PA152.EL107]

           CMMI and other process and process-improvement reference models

           Planning and managing process improvement

           Tools, methods, and analysis techniques

           Process modeling

           Facilitation techniques

           Change management

 

GP 2.6        Manage Configurations

Place designated work products of the organizational process focus process under appropriate levels of configuration management.  [GP109]

Elaboration:

Examples of work products placed under configuration management include the following:  [PA152.EL108]

           Process-improvement proposals

           Organization’s approved process action plans

           Training materials for deploying organizational process assets

           Plans for the organization’s process appraisals

 

GP 2.7        Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the organizational process focus process as planned.  [GP124]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following:  [PA152.EL119]

           Coordinating and collaborating on process-improvement activities with process owners, those that are or will be performing the process, and support organizations (e.g., training staff and quality assurance representatives)

           Establishing the organizational process needs and objectives

           Appraising the organization’s processes

           Implementing process action plans

           Coordinating and collaborating on the execution of pilots to test selected improvements

           Deploying organizational process assets and changes to organizational process assets

           Communicating the plans, status, activities, and results related to the implementation of process-improvement activities

 

GP 2.8        Monitor and Control the Process

Monitor and control the organizational process focus process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action.  [GP110]

Elaboration:

Examples of measures used in monitoring and controlling include the following:  [PA152.EL113]

           Number of process-improvement proposals submitted, accepted, or implemented

           CMMI maturity level or capability level

 

GP 2.9        Objectively Evaluate Adherence

Objectively evaluate adherence of the organizational process focus process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance.  [GP113]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities reviewed include the following:  [PA152.EL115]

           Determining process-improvement opportunities

           Planning and coordinating process-improvement activities

 

Examples of work products reviewed include the following:  [PA152.EL118]

           Process-improvement plans

           Process action plans

           Plans for the organization’s process appraisals

 

GP 2.10      Review Status with Higher Level Management

Review the activities, status, and results of the organizational process focus process with higher level management and resolve issues.  [GP112]

Elaboration:

These reviews are typically in the form of a briefing presented to the management steering committee by the process group and the process action teams.  [PA152.EL116]

Examples of presentation topics include the following:  [PA152.EL121]

           Status of improvements being developed by process action teams

           Results of pilots

           Results of deployments

           Schedule status for achieving significant milestones (e.g., readiness for an appraisal, or progress towards achieving a targeted organizational maturity level or capability level profile)

 

GG 3           Institutionalize a Defined Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GP 3.1        Establish a Defined Process

Establish and maintain the description of a defined organizational process focus process.  [GP114]

GP 3.2        Collect Improvement Information

Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the organizational process focus process to support the future use and improvement of the organization’s processes and process assets.  [GP117]

GG 4           Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GP 4.1        Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for the organizational process focus process that address quality and process performance based on customer needs and business objectives.  [GP118]

GP 4.2        Stabilize Subprocess Performance

Stabilize the performance of one or more subprocesses to determine the ability of the organizational process focus process to achieve the established quantitative quality and process-performance objectives.  [GP119]

GG 5           Institutionalize an Optimizing Process

                   The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

GP 5.1        Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

Ensure continuous improvement of the organizational process focus process in fulfilling the relevant business objectives of the organization.  [GP125]

GP 5.2        Correct Root Causes of Problems

Identify and correct the root causes of defects and other problems in the organizational process focus process.  [GP121]