Organizational Environment for Integration (OEI)  Category: Support

Notes:

        The contents of this web page were extracted from the following document: Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM), Version 1.1, Continuous Representation, CMU/SEI-2002-TR-011, March 2002 (CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/SS). Copyright 2002 by Carnegie Mellon University. NO WARRANTY.

        Ignore the identifiers in square brackets that appear at the end of paragraphs.

        The formatting may not be the same as in the printed CMMI document. The web page is best viewed in Internet Explorer.

        In the CMMI, a subset is known as a "Process Area (PA)" and a requirement is known as a "Practice". The specific practices are referred to as SPs and the generic practices are referred to as GPs.

        This web page contains the text for SPs and GPs as it appears in Chapter 7 of the CMMI document, in the section corresponding to the process area named in the heading of this page. This web page does not include the detailed description of the GPs that appears in a separate chapter of the CMMI document; the detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. (Note: Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window.)

Purpose   The purpose of Organizational Environment for Integration is to provide an Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) infrastructure and manage people for integration.  [PA169]

Introductory Notes   Successful integration of business and technical elements in projects is dependent upon substantive and proactive organizational processes and guidelines. The organization is an integrated system capable of providing and sustaining the people, products, and processes necessary for the effective and efficient execution of its projects. The organization must raise performance expectations from all projects while providing mechanisms that stimulate both team and individual excellence.  [PA169.N101]

Important characteristics of effective environments for integration include people trained to exploit the collaborative environment; a workplace that provides resources to maximize the productivity of people and facilitate integrated teams; and organization’s set of standard processes and organizational process assets that culturally enable an IPPD environment that promotes and rewards team as well as individual excellence.  [PA169.N102]

Refer to the Integrated Project Management for IPPD process area for more information about managing relevant stakeholder involvement, resolving coordination issues, establishing the shared vision of a project, and organizing integrated teams.  [PA169.R104]

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing the organization’s set of standard processes and process asset library.  [PA169.R102]

Refer to the Organizational Training process area for more information about identifying training needs and providing the necessary training.  [PA169.R103]

Specific Goals

SG 1           Provide IPPD Infrastructure  [PA169.IG101]

                   An infrastructure that maximizes the productivity of people and affects the collaboration necessary for integration is provided.

SG 2           Manage People for Integration  [PA169.IG102]

                   People are managed to nurture the integrative and collaborative behaviors of an IPPD environment.

Generic Goals

GG 1           Achieve Specific Goals   [CL102.GL101]

                   The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GG 2           Institutionalize a Managed Process  [CL103.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GG 3           Institutionalize a Defined Process  [CL104.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GG 4           Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process  [CL105.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GG 5           Institutionalize an Optimizing Process  [CL106.GL101]

                   The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

Practice-to-Goal Relationship Table

SG 1 Provide IPPD Infrastructure  [PA169.IG101]

SP 1.1-1      Establish the Organization’s Shared Vision

SP 1.2-1      Establish an Integrated Work Environment

SP 1.3-1      Identify IPPD-Unique Skill Requirements

SG 2 Manage People for Integration  [PA169.IG102]

SP 2.1-1      Establish Leadership Mechanisms

SP 2.2-1      Establish Incentives for Integration

SP 2.3-1      Establish Mechanisms to Balance Team and Home Organization Responsibilities

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals   [CL102.GL101]

GP 1.1        Perform Base Practices

GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process  [CL103.GL101]

GP 2.1        Establish an Organizational Policy

GP 2.2        Plan the Process

GP 2.3        Provide Resources

GP 2.4        Assign Responsibility

GP 2.5        Train People

GP 2.6        Manage Configurations

GP 2.7        Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

GP 2.8        Monitor and Control the Process

GP 2.9        Objectively Evaluate Adherence

GP 2.10      Review Status with Higher Level Management

GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process  [CL104.GL101]

GP 3.1        Establish a Defined Process

GP 3.2        Collect Improvement Information

GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process  [CL105.GL101]

GP 4.1        Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

GP 4.2        Stabilize Subprocess Performance

GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process  [CL106.GL101]

GP 5.1        Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

GP 5.2        Correct Root Causes of Problems

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1           Provide IPPD Infrastructure

                   An infrastructure that maximizes the productivity of people and affects the collaboration necessary for integration is provided.  [PA169.IG101]

An organizational infrastructure that supports and promotes IPPD concepts is critical if IPPD is to be successfully sustained over the long term. An IPPD infrastructure includes the following:  [PA169.IG101.N101]

           An organization's shared vision that promotes IPPD concepts such as concurrent development and integrated teaming

           A work environment that enables efficient and effective collaboration and integration

           People trained to collaborate, integrate, and lead others, as necessary

SP 1.1-1      Establish the Organization’s Shared Vision

Establish and maintain a shared vision for the organization.  [PA169.IG101.SP101]

Establishing and maintaining the organization’s shared vision involves creating, communicating, using, and periodically evaluating and revising the shared vision. An organization’s shared vision captures the organization’s guiding principles including mission, objectives, expected behavior, and values. The shared visions of a project’s integrated teams should be consistent with the project’s shared vision, which in turn should be consistent with the organization’s shared vision. See the definition of “shared vision” in Chapter 3 for an explanation of how this term is used in the CMMI Product Suite.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.N101]

Creating a shared vision involves establishing and actively maintaining agreement and commitment about what is to be done and how it will be accomplished, both procedurally and behaviorally. A shared vision is a result of an ongoing dialogue among all the people who will make it real. It continues to evolve as more ideas are shared.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.N102]

The organization’s shared vision facilitates people working together, helps those people to attain unity of purpose, and creates a common understanding of the end state the organization is aiming to achieve. The organization’s shared vision must speak to every element of the organization. Effectively impacting the lowest levels of the organization necessitates impacting the highest levels as well. The organization’s leaders need to be role models for the actions of the organization. Their commitment to IPPD is critical to its success in the organization. They must clearly communicate their expectations for the organization’s projects and integrated teams and what the projects and integrated teams can expect from the management.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.N103]

The organization’s shared vision needs to be grounded in reality. Organizations may be tempted to include in their shared vision broad statements about integrated teaming and employee empowerment. It is more important, however, to use the shared vision to set reasonable expectations on the rate of change in an organization. Unrealistic proclamations can transform the shared vision into a source of frustration and cause the organization to retreat from it after initial pilot demonstrations.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.N104]

The organization’s shared vision should be articulated in sufficient detail to provide criteria against which the shared visions of the projects and integrated teams can be aligned. For example, the organization’s shared vision should address the use of integrated teams for projects, the focus on the customer, and the concurrent development of both product-related life-cycle processes and the product. These concepts should in turn be reflected in the shared visions of the projects and integrated teams. Guidelines for how projects and integrated teams should develop their shared visions should be made part of the organization’s process asset library.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.N105]

Maintenance of the organization’s shared vision involves evaluating its use and currency. Results of evaluations may indicate the need to update the organization’s shared vision or to establish and maintain organizational practices and structures that implement the shared vision.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.N106]

Typical Work Products

1.    Organization’s shared vision  [PA169.IG101.SP101.W101]

2.    Evaluations of the organization’s shared vision  [PA169.IG101.SP101.W102]

3.    Guidelines for shared-vision building within projects and integrated teams  [PA169.IG101.SP101.W103]

Subpractices

1.    Identify expectations, constraints, interfaces, and boundary conditions applicable to the organization’s shared vision.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP101]

2.    Create a shared vision for the organization.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP102]

The shared vision can include what the people in the organization can expect from the organization (for example, some organizations have developed an “employee’s bill of rights”).  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP102.N101]

3.    Communicate the shared vision both externally and internally.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP103]

4.    Ensure that organizational practices and structures are aligned with the shared vision.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP104]

5.    Periodically review the shared vision and update it as necessary.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP105]

Reexamine the shared vision to determine weaknesses and misunderstood parts. Revise the shared vision to improve its clarity and applicability to the current state of the organization. Periodically reinforce the clarity and reality of the shared vision.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP105.N101]

6.    Provide guidelines for shared-vision building for use by projects and integrated teams.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP106]

These guidelines should establish the context for the shared visions of the projects and integrated teams.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP106.N101]

Shared visions of the projects should be focused on product and contribute to achievement of the organization’s shared vision. Shared visions of the projects could relate the minimum competencies, or demonstrated capabilities, for people assigned to integrated teams, such as individual leadership capabilities. Proposed products, activities, partnerships, organizational and project structures, and shared visions of the projects are tested against the organization’s shared vision.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP106.N102]

For the integrated teams, nurturing integration necessitates special attention to the objectives, values, and behaviors that are needed to affect integrated teamwork. Aspects such as team operations, team behaviors, team responsibilities, and collaboration with interfacing teams can be addressed.  [PA169.IG101.SP101.SubP106.N103]

SP 1.2-1      Establish an Integrated Work Environment

Establish and maintain an integrated work environment that supports IPPD by enabling collaboration and concurrent development.  [PA169.IG101.SP102]

An integrated work environment includes the physical infrastructure (e.g., facilities, tools, equipment, and support needed to effectively use them) that people need to perform their jobs effectively. Properly functioning environments help people communicate clearly and efficiently about the product, processes, people needs, and organization. An integrated work environment helps integrate the business and technical functions and the interfaces among teams, projects, and organizations.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.N101]

The integrated work environment must accommodate both collocated and distributed integrated teams as required. Two-way communications media should be easily accessible by all relevant stakeholders.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.N102]

Encouraging open dialogue by providing communication mechanisms enables everyone to effectively engage in and contribute to information sharing. Appropriate mechanisms might include meeting rooms, email, fax, FTP or Web sites, video teleconferencing capabilities, and others depending on the organization’s culture and its project and integrated team preferences for efficient and effective information sharing. The types of information needed, which agents (projects, integrated teams, or individuals), and how many of them produce, own, and need that information should be considered in deciding the mechanisms to be used.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.N103]

Integrated communication tool sets reduce time spent converting information from one medium or platform to another, and correcting transcriptions or misunderstandings when people do the conversions. Requirements for product and process information usability throughout the life of the product are important characteristics to consider in the selection of information-exchange tools. In an IPPD environment, it is particularly important that the tools for designing and developing the product-related life-cycle processes are integrated with the tools for designing and developing the product and product components.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.N104]

Integrated work environments are developed with the same, or greater, rigor as that used to develop a specific product or service. Integrated work environments are capital assets that are often expensive, have unique implementations, are irreversible (their implementation can destroy or make unusable the assets being replaced), and whose modification disrupts ongoing activities. The rigor appropriate to the development should be matched to the magnitude of the needs to be resolved and the deployment risks.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.N105]

Typical Work Products

1.    Requirements for the integrated work environment  [PA169.IG101.SP102.W101]

2.    Design of the integrated work environment  [PA169.IG101.SP102.W102]

3.    Integrated work environment  [PA169.IG101.SP102.W103]

Subpractices

1.    Determine requirements for the integrated work environment.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP101]

Requirements for the integrated work environment are typically based on the following:  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP101.N101]

       The organization’s set of standard processes

       The objectives of the organization articulated in the organization’s shared vision

       The needs associated with developing, maintaining, and delivering the products and services of the organization

2.    Regularly evaluate the effectiveness of the existing environment and forecast the need for additional, upgraded, or new tools or integrated work environment components.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP102]

3.    Maintain awareness of current and emerging technologies, tools, and resources that are related to the integrated work environment.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP103]

Maintaining awareness may be accomplished through industry journals, professional societies, conferences, trade shows, or benchmarking.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP103.N101]

Examples of technologies, tools, and resources include the following:  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP103.N102]

       Computing resources and software productivity tools

       Communications systems, tools, and resources

       Communication tools (email, telephone, databases, archives, etc.)

       Manufacturing and production facilities

       Engineering or simulation tools

       Proprietary engineering tools

       Prototyping or production equipment

       Work space

       Office equipment and supplies

       Raw or stock input materials

       Transportation resources

       “Hotlines” and “help desks”

       Information brokerage services

       Support staff and/or services

       Information-technology capabilities

       Process enactment and management tools

 

4.    Plan, design, and implement an integrated work environment.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP104]

The critical aspects of the work environment are, like any other system, requirements driven. Work environment functionality (stimulated by customer needs and requirements) is explored with the same rigor as any other system development. Are the performance improvements (for example, timely interoperable communications, safety, security, maintainability) worth the costs (for example, capital outlays, training, support structure, disassembly and disposal of existing environments, performance and maintenance of the environment) and risks (for example, work flow and project disruptions)? Requirements are developed for the duration of the work environment and address, as appropriate, the three different cases for work environment improvements: developing a new environment, migrating an existing environment to new capabilities, and maintaining awareness of new and evolving technologies to exploit improvement opportunities. As required, the integrated work environment or some of its components can be developed in house or acquired from external sources.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP104.N101]

5.    Provide ongoing maintenance and operational support for the integrated work environment.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP105]

Maintenance and support of the integrated work environment can be accomplished either with capabilities found inside the organization or hired from outside the organization.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP105.N101]

Examples of maintenance and support methods include the following:  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP105.N102]

       Hiring people to perform the maintenance and support

       Training people to perform the maintenance and support

       Contracting the maintenance and support

       Developing expert users for selected automation tools

6.    Monitor and evaluate the adequacy of the integrated work environment to satisfy user needs.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP106]

Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about practices for monitoring and controlling the work environment.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP106.R101]

The work environment should be monitored throughout its existence to ascertain if, and when, its performance degrades below that expected (or specified) as well as to identify opportunities for improvements. The key operating characteristics of the integrated work environment should be identified. The key operating characteristics are those performance, product, and process characteristics that can be measured and compared against expected capabilities of the integrated work environment. End users should be surveyed to determine the adequacy of the current environment and to identify potential improvements. Changes should be planned and implemented based on the analysis of usage and performance data and on identified real and potential problems.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP106.N101]

7.    Revise the integrated work environment as necessary, by adding, deleting, or replacing components.  [PA169.IG101.SP102.SubP107]

SP 1.3-1      Identify IPPD-Unique Skill Requirements

Identify the unique skills needed to support the IPPD environment.  [PA169.IG101.SP103]

Refer to the Organizational Training process area for more information about determining training needs and delivering the training.  [PA169.IG101.SP103.R101]

IPPD is a sufficiently different view of product development that the organization’s leadership and work force will need to develop new skills. IPPD requires integrative leadership, and interpersonal skills beyond those typically found in traditional environments where people tend to work alone or primarily interact with others from their own, or similar, functions, or disciplines. Specific skills emphasized in an IPPD environment include the following:  [PA169.IG101.SP103.N101]

           The skills to integrate all appropriate business and technical functions and their processes

           The interpersonal skills to coordinate and collaborate with others

           The leadership skills to act, and successfully influence others to act, to achieve the shared vision

Training to support these new skills must be established and maintained to sustain the ongoing adoption of IPPD in the organization.  [PA169.IG101.SP103.N102]

Each integrated team member needs to understand what is vital to other team members in terms of product characteristics and the descriptions, expectations, and interfaces of the processes associated with the other functions represented on the team. This understanding can often be augmented through cross training of individuals across their function or discipline boundaries.  [PA169.IG101.SP103.N103]

Collaboration among integrated team members is essential to create a team product rather than a collection of independent products. Enhanced interpersonal skills can help bridge the differences between disparate functions and disciplines as well as the differences in cultures, values, and backgrounds.  [PA169.IG101.SP103.N104]

Leadership demands also increase under IPPD. Leadership challenges include: ensuring that all team members mutually understand their roles and responsibilities; employing people in their intended roles; and effectively accessing the depth and wealth of specific expertise resident in the organization and integrating it into the overall integrated team effort.  [PA169.IG101.SP103.N105]

Typical Work Products

1.    IPPD strategic training needs  [PA169.IG101.SP103.W101]

2.    IPPD tactical training needs  [PA169.IG101.SP103.W102]

Subpractices

1.    Provide requirements for IPPD skills for inclusion in the organization’s strategic training needs.  [PA169.IG101.SP103.SubP101]

2.    Provide requirements for IPPD skills for inclusion in the organization’s tactical training plan.  [PA169.IG101.SP103.SubP102]

SG 2           Manage People for Integration

                   People are managed to nurture the integrative and collaborative behaviors of an IPPD environment.  [PA169.IG102]

In an IPPD environment, special attention needs to be paid to aspects of organizational leadership and management. Nurturing integration necessitates focus on the objectives, values, and behaviors that are needed to affect integrated teamwork. The organization establishes the IPPD guidelines and processes that become part of the organization’s set of standard processes and the project’s defined process. The organization’s standard processes enable, promote, and reinforce the integrative behaviors expected from projects, integrated teams, and people. For all IPPD processes and guidelines, people are recognized not as the tools or means to the end, but as part of a mutually beneficial collaboration to achieve the objectives.  [PA169.IG102.N101]

In stimulating the integration needed, team-related incentives may be appropriate for people who work together. However, the value of individual excellence should not be overlooked. A balanced approach that addresses both individual performance as well as team performance would help maintain high standards of both team and individual achievement. Expectations from projects, integrated teams, and people are typically communicated in the form of policies, operating procedures, guidelines, and other organizational process assets.  [PA169.IG102.N102]

SP 2.1-1      Establish Leadership Mechanisms

Establish and maintain leadership mechanisms to enable timely collaboration.  [PA169.IG102.SP101]

Implementing IPPD introduces challenges to leadership because of the cultural changes required when people and integrated teams are empowered and decisions are driven to the lowest level appropriate. Effective and efficient communication mechanisms are critical to timely and sound decision making in the integrated work environment. Once an integrated work environment is established and training is provided, mechanisms to handle empowerment, decision making, and issue resolution also need to be provided to affect the timely collaboration of relevant stakeholders required for IPPD.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.N101]

In an IPPD environment, it is particularly important that clear channels of responsibility and authority be established. Within the projects and the organization, issues can arise when individuals or integrated teams assume too much or too little authority and when the level at which decisions are made, or who owns what decisions, is unclear. Organizational guidelines that scope the degree of empowerment for integrated teams serve an issue-prevention role. Best practices promote documented and deployed organizational guidelines that can preclude issues arising from empowerment and authority misinterpretation.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.N102]

Empowerment does not necessarily mean that every decision in an IPPD environment must occur at the lowest level, that it must be done collaboratively, or even that it must reflect consensus among all integrated team members or project participants. Decisions on the style and procedures for leadership and decision making for projects and among integrated teams need to be made in collaboration with the relevant stakeholders. In establishing the context for decision making, the various kinds of issues are described and agreements are reached on the decision type that will be used to resolve each kind of issue.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.N103]

Some examples of decision types include the following:  [PA169.IG102.SP101.N104]

           Command. The leader examines the issue and makes a decision alone.

           Consultative. The leader receives and examines inputs on the issue from relevant stakeholders and makes the decision.

           Collaborative. Issues are raised by any relevant stakeholders (including the leader), the issues are discussed, and the solutions are voted upon. Rules are needed to determine whether this vote is binding on the leader.

           Consensus. Issues are raised by any relevant stakeholders, including the leader, and are discussed until all members of the integrated team can live with and support the decision.

           Structured. Major issues may be decided using formal evaluations. The steps in formal evaluations may be carried out in a collaborative way.

 

For many issues, a command decision may be adequate. For issues that require several different areas of expertise or that have far-reaching consequences, collaborative decisions may be more appropriate. Defining decision types and the authority of those entrusted to make decisions enables efficient operations.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.N105]

Mechanisms that grow leadership talent enable lower organizational unit delegation, which, in turn, enables faster, better responses to changing customer needs, technology, and environmental conditions.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.N106]

Leadership characteristics cannot be viewed as solely embodied in the manager/leader. When leadership characteristics are evident in more than the leader, individual group members lead decision making and activities that heavily involve their areas of expertise. This flexibility can result in improved group efficiency and effectiveness.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.N107]

Even with well-intentioned empowerment, leadership, and decision making, issues will arise that cannot be resolved at the same level. An organizational process for issue resolution can form the basis for project- and integrated-team-specific procedures and help ensure that basic issue-resolution avenues are available to projects and integrated teams when unresolved issues must be escalated. An organizational process for issue resolution can serve both issue-resolution and issue-prevention roles.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.N108]

Typical Work Products

1.    Guidelines for determining the degree of empowerment of people and integrated teams  [PA169.IG102.SP101.W101]

2.    Guidelines for setting leadership and decision-making context  [PA169.IG102.SP101.W102]

3.    Organizational process documentation for issue resolution  [PA169.IG102.SP101.W103]

Subpractices

1.    Establish and maintain guidelines for the degree of empowerment provided to people and integrated teams.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.SubP101]

2.    Collaboratively determine rules for the use of different decision types in making various kinds of decisions.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.SubP102]

Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about approaches for evaluating and selecting among alternatives.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.SubP102.R101]

3.    Define the process for using the decision-making rules.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.SubP103]

4.    Define a process for conflict resolution when an issue cannot be decided at the level at which it arose.  [PA169.IG102.SP101.SubP104]

SP 2.2-1      Establish Incentives for Integration

Establish and maintain incentives for adopting and demonstrating integrative and collaborative behaviors at all levels of the organization.  [PA169.IG102.SP102]

The recognition and reward systems in an organization are one of the motivators for behavior and value changes. To support IPPD, the recognition and reward systems (both positive rewards and negative consequences) need to recognize a shift in values from a single point of success or failure (e.g., providing a management incentive package to the product or program manager alone) to integrated team success or failure (e.g., providing layered incentives to integrated team members based on degree of involvement and contribution).  [PA169.IG102.SP102.N101]

Individual excellence still should be recognized, but criteria should discern whether such excellence was achieved at the expense of the integrative behaviors expected or in support of them. For example, individuals (such as leaders) removing integration barriers or implementing collaboration capabilities may be just as important as an integrated team performing well. Care should be taken, however, not to single out individuals for recognition for a team’s achievement.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.N102]

Incentives should be consistent with the objectives of the organization and applied to achieve desired behavior at all levels of the organization. Criteria can establish guidelines for the reassignment of people who are unable to demonstrate desired behavior and the selection of people who can exhibit desired behavior for challenging or important jobs.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.N103]

Compensation is not the only motivator, although giving an object of some value is an appropriate recognition. Reinforcement of positive behavior via thanks or praise is usually appropriate, especially soon after the observed performance of a task. Such immediate recognition reinforces the collaborative nature of working in an IPPD environment. If staff must wait for yearly performance appraisals, their motivation for working outside of their strict functional job description is lessened.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.N104]

The yearly performance appraisals also need to be addressed. Review mechanisms should be structured so that both home organization supervisors and team leaders contribute to a person’s performance review.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.N105]

Typical Work Products

1.    Policies and procedures for performance appraisal and recognition that reinforce collaboration  [PA169.IG102.SP102.W101]

2.    Integrated team and individual recognition and rewards  [PA169.IG102.SP102.W102]

Subpractices

1.    Structure the recognition and reward system to be consistent with the IPPD environment.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.SubP101]

The organization’s recognition and reward system should recognize the value of individual and integrated team excellence and enable, promote, and reinforce integration.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.SubP101.N101]

2.    Develop guidelines for team as well as individual recognition.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.SubP102]

3.    Define procedures for integrated review processes that involve both the integrated team leader and the functional manager.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.SubP103]

4.    Establish criteria for distinguishing behaviors that promote integrated team performance from those that establish barriers to team behaviors.  [PA169.IG102.SP102.SubP104]

SP 2.3-1      Establish Mechanisms to Balance Team and Home Organization Responsibilities

Establish and maintain organizational guidelines to balance team and home organization responsibilities.  [PA169.IG102.SP103]

Here “home organization” refers to that part of the organization to which personnel are assigned when they are not in an integrated team. This home organization may be called the “functional organization,” “home base,” “home office,” or “direct organization.” Regardless of what it is called, it is often responsible for the career growth of the personnel assigned to it (e.g., performance appraisals and training to maintain functional and discipline expertise). In an IPPD environment, reporting procedures and rating systems should recognize that people’s responsibility is focused on the integrated team, not on the traditional home organization. A balance must be struck, however, because the responsibility of integrated team members to their respective home organizations is still important, specifically for process implementation and improvement. Workloads should be balanced between projects and functions, while ensuring career growth and advancement. Mechanisms should be created that support the home organization responsibility but align the work force to meet business objectives in a teaming environment.  [PA169.IG102.SP103.N101]

Striking this balance is difficult for an organization but exceedingly important for the personnel and the success of IPPD implementation. The balance must be reflected in the personal or career development plans for each individual. The knowledge and skills needed for an individual to succeed in both their functional and integrated team role should be honed, taking into account current and future assignments.  [PA169.IG102.SP103.N102]

Guidelines should also be in place for disbanding teams and maintaining home organizations. It has been observed that sometimes teams attempt to remain in place beyond their productive life in organizations that do not have a home organization for the team members to report back to after the team is dissolved.  [PA169.IG102.SP103.N103]

Typical Work Products

1.    Organizational guidelines for balancing team and home organization responsibilities  [PA169.IG102.SP103.W101]

2.    Performance review process that considers both functional supervisor and team leader input  [PA169.IG102.SP103.W102]

Subpractices

1.    Establish guidelines for home organization responsibilities in promoting integrated team behavior.  [PA169.IG102.SP103.SubP101]

2.    Establish guidelines for team management responsibilities to ensure integrated team members report appropriately to their home organization.  [PA169.IG102.SP103.SubP102]

3.    Establish a performance review process that considers input from home organization and integrated team leaders.  [PA169.IG102.SP103.SubP103]

Generic Practices by Goal

(Note: The detailed description of the GPs is available in a separate web page. Using the hyperlink provided here will open that web page in a separate window. However, the GP elaborations pertinent to the process area of this web page are available below.)

GG 1           Achieve Specific Goals

                   The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GP 1.1        Perform Base Practices

Perform the base practices of the organizational environment for integration process to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area.  [GP102]

GG 2           Institutionalize a Managed Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GP 2.1        Establish an Organizational Policy

Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the organizational environment for integration process.  [GP103]

Elaboration:

This policy establishes organizational expectations for providing an IPPD infrastructure and managing people for integration.  [PA169.EL101]

GP 2.2        Plan the Process

Establish and maintain the plan for performing the organizational environment for integration process.  [GP104]

Elaboration:

This plan for performing the organizational environment for integration process may be included in or referenced by the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area, or it may be documented in a separate plan that describes only the plan for the organizational environment for integration process.  [PA169.EL111]

GP 2.3        Provide Resources

Provide adequate resources for performing the organizational environment for integration process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process.  [GP105]

Elaboration:

Examples of special equipment and facilities include the following:  [PA169.EL103]

           Manufacturing and production facilities

           Prototyping or production equipment

           Work space

           Office equipment and supplies

           Raw or stock input materials

           Transportation resources

           “Hotlines” and “help desks”

           Information brokerage services

           Support staff and/or services

 

Examples of other resources provided include the following tools:  [PA169.EL104]

           Communications systems, tools, and resources

           Computing resources and software productivity tools

           Engineering or simulation tools

           Proprietary engineering tools

           Information-technology capabilities

 

GP 2.4        Assign Responsibility

Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the organizational environment for integration process.  [GP106]

GP 2.5        Train People

Train the people performing or supporting the organizational environment for integration process as needed.  [GP107]

Elaboration:

Examples of training topics include the following:  [PA169.EL105]

           Work environment development

           Ergonomics

           Leadership policies for IPPD

           Managing people for integration and collaboration

 

GP 2.6        Manage Configurations

Place designated work products of the organizational environment for integration process under appropriate levels of configuration management.  [GP109]

Elaboration:

Examples of work products placed under configuration management include the following:  [PA169.EL106]

           Organizational guidelines that determine the degree of empowerment of individuals and integrated teams

           Organizational process documentation for issue resolution

           Organization’s shared vision

 

GP 2.7        Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the organizational environment for integration process as planned.  [GP124]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following:  [PA169.EL107]

           Establishing and maintaining the organization’s shared vision

           Establishing and maintaining the integrated work environment

           Establishing IPPD skill needs

           Establishing and maintaining IPPD leadership mechanisms

           Establishing and maintaining organizational policies for the management of people in an IPPD environment

 

GP 2.8        Monitor and Control the Process

Monitor and control the organizational environment for integration process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action.  [GP110]

Elaboration:

Examples of measures used in monitoring and controlling include the following:  [PA169.EL108]

           Parameters for key operating characteristics of the work environment

 

GP 2.9        Objectively Evaluate Adherence

Objectively evaluate adherence of the organizational environment for integration process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance.  [GP113]

Elaboration:

Examples of activities reviewed include the following:  [PA169.EL109]

           Establishing the shared vision for the organization

           Developing guidelines for the degree of empowerment provided to people and teams

           Establishing and maintaining an issue-resolution process

 

Examples of work products reviewed include the following:  [PA169.EL110]

           Organization’s shared vision

           Organizational guidelines that determine the degree of empowerment of individuals and integrated teams

           Organizational process documentation for issue resolution

           Compensation policies and procedures

 

GP 2.10      Review Status with Higher Level Management

Review the activities, status, and results of the organizational environment for integration process with higher level management and resolve issues.  [GP112]

GG 3           Institutionalize a Defined Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

GP 3.1        Establish a Defined Process

Establish and maintain the description of a defined organizational environment for integration process.  [GP114]

GP 3.2        Collect Improvement Information

Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the organizational environment for integration process to support the future use and improvement of the organization’s processes and process assets.  [GP117]

GG 4           Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process

                   The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GP 4.1        Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for the organizational environment for integration process that address quality and process performance based on customer needs and business objectives.  [GP118]

GP 4.2        Stabilize Subprocess Performance

Stabilize the performance of one or more subprocesses to determine the ability of the organizational environment for integration process to achieve the established quantitative quality and process-performance objectives.  [GP119]

GG 5           Institutionalize an Optimizing Process

                   The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

GP 5.1        Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

Ensure continuous improvement of the organizational environment for integration process in fulfilling the relevant business objectives of the organization.  [GP125]

GP 5.2        Correct Root Causes of Problems

Identify and correct the root causes of defects and other problems in the organizational environment for integration process.  [GP121]